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European Exploration and Colonization

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  1. European Exploration and Colonization European Empires Theme of Social Studies: Movement/Migration

  2. European Exploration SS6H6 The student will analyze the impact of European exploration and colonization on various world regions. b. Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, and France in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

  3. European Exploration SS6H6 The student will analyze the impact of European exploration and colonization on various world regions. b. Trace (map out) the empires (territories) of Portugal, Spain, England, and France in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

  4. Name: _____________ Topic: Empires of Europe SS6H b) Date: ____Period: __ TOC #: ___ Portugal France Spain Assessment Prompts England Time Period/Routes Time Period/Routes Time Period/Routes Time Period/Routes #1 Motivation Motivation Motivation Motivation #2 Important People/Explorers Important People/Explorers #3 Empire Territories Empire Territories Impact Empire Territories Empire Territories Crusades:

  5. EQWrite this down on the back of your TMAP: You will answer at the end. • What were Europe’s colonies in Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Americas? Hint: There were four main ones.

  6. Assessment Prompts • 1. What European countries had colonies on other continents? • 2. What is a colony? • 3. Where were these colonies located?

  7. Empire Building • After the 14th century, Europe’s most powerful countries competed to see who could get the most colonies (colony). • They wanted to build their Empire by taking over other parts of the world (Imperialism).

  8. Write this down!!!!! The Crusades (1096-1272) • Military expeditions sent by the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church to capture the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks • Not successful, but had a few positive results: Western Europeans learned to: • better maps • build better ships • Exposed Europeans to spices & goods from the East

  9. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the 3 positive results from the Crusades Pair: With a partner, tell each other the three positive results Share: With the group, share what we’ve just discussed. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  10. Trade Routes • 1400s—major trade routes from the East to Europe went through 2 Italian cities (Venice & Genoa) • -Italian merchants marked up the prices on the jewels, fragrances, woods and finished goods & sold them throughout Europe. • Portugal, Spain, France, and England resented the huge profits made by Italians. Since they controlled the trade routes through Mediterranean Sea they began to look for other routes to the India, China and Spice Islands.

  11. “Scramble for Africa” • Led to the • colonization of • most of the • continent.

  12. Spain and Portugal: Treaty of Tordesillas • Portugal and Spain claimed territories in the New World before any other European powers. • Since both nations were Catholic, the Pope drew a line on the map showing which territories would belong to Portugal and which ones belonged to Spain

  13. Spain and Portugal: Treaty of Tordesillas

  14. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the Treaty of Tordesillas Pair: With a partner, ask who came up with the Treaty Share: With the group, share what we’ve just discussed. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  15. 1st Box: Portugal’s Empire • Time Period/Routes: 15th century: led the world in sea exploration and explored the western coast of Africa • Motivation: find a trade route around Africa to Asia • Believed they could make a lot of money as traders if they could get Asian goods for a cheaper price • Also wanted to spread Christianity along Africa’s west coast

  16. Important People: Prince Henry the Navigator • Son of the Portuguese king • 1st to start the colonial empires. • created a naval observatory that taught students navigation, astronomy, & cartography • Sent more than 50 expeditions down the west coast of Africa and a route to India and China but never visited them. • -Wanted to establish Portuguese colonies & break the Muslim hold on trade routes

  17. Prince Henry the Navigator

  18. Institute of Sagres

  19. Prince Henry the Navigator • Unable to make money trading gold, so he tried creating sugar cane plantations • --Sugar cane was a very profitable crop, but required lots of labor • Henry imported slaves from Africa to work the fields • --This was successful & was later copied in the New World • --Encouraged a slave trade that lasted another 400 years…

  20. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator Pair: With a partner, where did Prince Henry ships sail from? Share: With the group, share what we’ve just discussed about Prince Henry. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  21. Portugal’s Empire • Explorers: Bartolomeu Dias (one of Prince Henry Sailors) reached the southern tip of Africa called The Cape of Good Hope and The Indian Ocean. • Explorers:Vasco da Gama, another explorer, later sailed around the cape and continued to India.

  22. Portugal’s Empire • For decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore East Asia where they established forts & trading posts • By 1571, a string of outposts connected Portugal to Africa, India, South Pacific Islands, & Japan • Portugal grew wealthy from these trade routes, but… • Its most profitable colony was Brazil in South America. Brazil was a Portuguese Colony until 1822.

  23. Territories:Portugal • The Portuguese Empire included the area known today as Brazil and much of the West Coast of Africa.

  24. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the colonies/territories of Portugal Pair: With a partner list the colonies of Portugal Share: With the group, share what we’ve just discussed about Portugal 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  25. According to legend, beyond this point in an area known as the "Green Sea of Darkness," the sun was so close to the Earth that a person’s skin would burn black, the sea boiled, ships caught on fire, and monsters hid waiting to smash the ships and eat the sailors. It took fourteen voyages over a period of 12 years until a ship finally reached the equator.

  26. Spain’s Empire • Time Period/Routes: 15th Century: Spanish explorers were searching for a trade route through or around North & South America to Asia • Motivation • Wanted to find a quicker route to the gold & spices in Asia.

  27. Spain • Spain controlled most of the New World (North America and South America), and parts of Europe, Africa, and the Philippines in Asia

  28. Important People/Explorers: Christopher Columbus • 1490s—C.C., an Italian, was given ships & sailors by the Spanish monarchy • --They wanted him to try to find a quick route through the Atlantic Ocean to Asia • He discovered the Bahamas, but thought he was in Asia… “East Indies” • --Later, it was realized that he “discovered” 2 new continents (North and South America) • Exploration of these areas brought great wealth to Spain

  29. Territories: Spain’s Empire • Huge empire that spanned the globe • Spanish conquistadors conquered the Inca and Aztec civilizations in the 1500’s (South America) • More Motivation • --Looking for gold & spices • --Used missionaries to convert natives to Christianity • Claimed huge areas of North & South America & ruled over them for 300 years

  30. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the colonies/territories of Spain Pair: With a partner list the colonies of Spain Share: With the group, share 3 important points about Christopher Columbus 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  31. (Britain) England’s Empire • England used to be one of three countries (England, Scotland, & Wales) shared an island. • Time Period: 1700’s, the three united and became Great Britain • British empire was the largest in history • --At its peak, Great Britain controlled: Canada, Australia, India, much of Africa, and numerous islands

  32. Britain (England) • By the 18th century, the British Empire was the most powerful in Europe • Territories: had colonies in in North America, Africa, the Caribbean, India, and Australia

  33. (Britain) England’s Empire • North America came under British control in the 1700s • --Lost American colonies in 1776 and U.S became an independent country. • --Maintained control over Canada until 20th century • Great Britain colonized Australia in 1788 • Motivation--Used it as a penal (prison) colony to relieve overcrowded jails in England

  34. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the colonies/territories of Britain Pair: With a partner list the colonies of Britain Share: With the group, discuss why Britain was the most powerful during the 18th century. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  35. France’s Empire • Time Period: French possessed colonies around the world from 1600 to 1900 • Motivation: Imperialism. Also dominated much of the European continent • --By 1812, France controlled much of Germany, Italy, & France

  36. France’s Empire • Time Period: Established other colonies in the 16th-17thcenturies: • --Islands in the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, & the North Atlantic • France also maintained influence in Canada, South America, Southeast Asia, & Northwest Africa

  37. Territories:France • The French Empire consisted of colonies in North America, Asia, and the West Indies • The French lost many of these to Britain, but it still controlled part of Asia, North America and eventually parts of West Africa

  38. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about the colonies/territories of France Pair: With a partner list the colonies of France Share: With the group, discuss what motivated France to colonize other areas. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  39. Impact:Imperialism = Injustice • Impact #1: European nations showed little respect for the indigenous (native) peoples they colonized. • Impact #2:Using military force and slave labor, they exploited (oppressed) conquered territories while they increased their wealth and power.

  40. Think-Pair-Share Think: Think about imperialism Pair: With a partner discuss the two impacts of imperialism Share: With the group, discuss how may imperialism a bad or good thing. 30 seconds….1…2…3… Go!

  41. Jigsaw Instructions • On your own separate sheet of paper. • Everyone will write each question and answer in complete sentences. Watch spelling and punctuation!! • Return back to base camp and share your answers with your Base Camp partners. • 20 Minutes to complete • Whatever is not completed in class, it is for homework!

  42. Jigsaw: Base Camp • Gold Group • What natural resources were Europeans looking for? • Where did Europeans have to go to get silk and spices? • Why did Europeans want a Sea Route to Asia? • Why was trading through the Mediterranean so expensive? • God / Glory Group • What did Europeans believe they had to spread? • Why did European countries want colonies? • Why did European colonies want new markets? • What is imperialism? • Prince Henry the Navigator • What country was he the ruler of? • What was he the first to do? • What did he open? Where/When did he open it?