May 1- Spring Lecture Day Clear off your desks- no writing required
Key concepts to remember: • Remember: Conceptual Accuracy- signing what is meant, not the sounds • Remember: Circumlocution- “talking around the concept”
Classifier PPT too • See classifier PowerPoint for ASL 2
Communication: • When two or more exchange information in meaningful ways. • Language: the vehicle that carries communication- it is living, changing, natural • Hearing: usually spoken, but not always--- • Spoken, signed, pictorial • Eg. hieroglyphics
Some items to consider… • 90% of deaf and hard of hearing children are born to hearing (mostly non-signing) parents. A majority of these hearing parents continue to be advised to avoid sign language at any cost, until and unless it becomes the “last resort” There is a huge battle over oralism vs. manualism in this country and around the globe. Deaf and hard of hearing children are left with the fall out of these battles. More and more, supporters are fighting to change Deaf education in this country!
Millions of $ for hearing babies to sign; but signing discouraged for deaf babies?
Oral Communication- “Oralism” • Alexander Graham Bell, “The Father of Oral Communication”/Oralism in this country (speech/lip reading only) • Influenced the establishment of early oral schools in America • Goal: integration into hearing society at whatever percent it is possible (“better than nothing”) • However, he believed against marriage for deaf, etc. (though married to a deaf woman)
The tragedy of Oralism: Quotes from the AGB website: • “Spoken communication skills are rooted in two interdependent categories: speech and language. Language is first learned through hearing, and speech is an expression of that language.” (AGB assoc.) • --- NOT true! Not all language is [first] learned through hearing!-Dr. Weast • “Regardless of what…your family chooses, the goal will always be to teach the child how to make the best possible use of hearing and to “learn to listen.” (AGB assoc.) • ---Ug, NO!-- the goal should be for the child to be healthy, happy, and a productive member of the community, finding a life purpose and embracing life through whatever language mode works best for them! – Dr. Weast • Manualism response: • Lipreading at most reveals 30% of language, and without sound, “listening” cannot be taught!!! What about written English comprehension? Children need a full language. Research shows written English skills are best learned through a full language, such as ASL! • ***it should not be more important to “say Algebra” than to “learn Algebra”, but that is what I (Dr. Weast) witnessed first hand years ago, and what Deaf advocates fight to change. Luckily, it is now changing school by school, and teacher by teacher. • Speech Therapy is a valuable tool, but is just that- and should be treated as an elective, similar to music lessons. Some prefer it, some do not- it should NOT be forced on students as the foundation of an education program (such as Oralism), but instead offered as one of many options for the student.
Manualism-views-Oralism-views- Whatever helps the child learn, live, whatever helps the child and communicate:learn to “listen” & “talk”: Facts, supported by linguistic research:- “The brain is most receptive to language acquisition during “sensitive periods” early in a child’s development.”- “Acquiring a complete first language during early childhood is critical for later reading comprehension.”- “Learning two languages [that is, American Sign Language (ASL) and English] is advantageous for deaf and hard of hearing children.” - “Deaf and hard of hearing children who receive early [visual language] intervention services [especially through age 5] have been found to have better language outcomes.”-VL2 • “Any speech or language problem is likely to have a significant effect on the child's social and academic skills and behavior. The earlier a child's speech and language problems are identified and treated, the less likely it is that problems will persist or get worse.” • -AGB Association • http://listeningandspokenlanguage.org/Document.aspx?id=238 • These are assumptions, NOT facts! - Dr. Weast
“A Strong Language Foundation, (regardless of the language or modality) is important for reading success.”-quote from brief http://vl2.gallaudet.edu/educator.php?id=2.11
Dark Ages of Deaf History • 1880 to 1970’s/80’s and beyond! – now some are emerging from the fog • Oralism- no signs allowed, Deaf teachers fired, manual schools shut down. Promise was that students of any hearing loss could “learn to listen” • --- uh, ?????? • Average deaf or hard of hearing student graduated high school at a • 3rd or 4th grade reading level- NOT their fault! (and these statistics are generally NOT the outcome for students now, if given full access to ASL) • 1960’s proof ASL is a fully developed language • 1975 Section 504 (now called IDEA) • 1990’s the ADA (American’s with Disabilities Act).
Problems… • 1970’s-80’s-Response to Section 504: Total Communication – “whatever works”, became signing and talking at the same time “simcom” (simultaneous communication), but no ASL- visual English only, if signs were deemed “necessary”, and they had to use voice • No real improvements in scores….so, beginning in the 1990s, More ASL was allowed in (depending on school), which led to great research in support of the child and ASL! But, others fight it despite evidence…
1990’s to now… • Research shows written English is best acquired through a real language, such as American Sign Language • 1990’s to now: Many ASL bilingual/bicultural/dual language schools are demonstrating effective Deaf Education and student success. Many schools, however, still limit access to signs even for the profoundly deaf child. If that child does not have a family member to “re-teach” them in their own language ASL, they end up behind, despite a brilliant mind! • Advocates for change continue to provide new research to support manual method. Speech therapy is considered an augmentation of a child’s life, not more important than learning concepts. • It is time for all Deaf children to have equal access to great education!
Cochlear Implant • Controversy- experimental, parents are often misinformed by medical pratictioners, some do benefit, but parents should not be scared into surgery. • Change through the years • “If your child receives little to no benefit from hearing aids, has a severe-to-profound hearing loss and is at least 12 months old, he or she may be a candidate for a cochlear implant. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends cochlear implant surgery no younger than 12 months, many children as young as 6 months old are having the surgery with few reports of complications. As with any surgery performed under general anesthesia, there are always risks parents should be aware of.” (AGBell Assoc.) • How would you like to be one of those “few complications”? What about the limitations this surgery imposes for the rest of your life? Also, any residual hearing is gone once you are implanted- so when it is not attached, you are in a full “silent” world, regardless. If possible, wait and let the child decide. • Cochlear Implant is serious brain surgery. Parents need to make informed decisions and weigh the risks/benefits of this surgery, without being misled that their child will never acquire written English without it- not true! • Also- many parents are choosing Oralism for imlanted children- these children still need exposure to signs, and teachers who advocate for this.
Communication Methods--- • American Sign Language (ASL)- A full language! • Systems (not languages), attempting to show “visual English”- • Where you are to associate what is seen to “sounds”, even though you may have never “heard” them -and no, crazy as it sounds, I am not making this up! -- see #1-#4 below: • 1.Manually Coded English Systems • Contact Signing (CS) • Total Communication • 2.Rochester Method- a fingerspelling system • 3.Oralism (Oral Communication, speech/lipreading only) • 4.Cued Speech –a type of sound/sight recognition system
ASL: It’s Own Language • Visual/manual communication system with it’s own syntax and vocabulary • Signs in conjunction with facial expression and body language convey concepts • Facial and bodily cues differ from nonverbal cues used with speech • An interactive language between the signer and the receiver
Youtube links : • ASL vs. SEE--- The Bank http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6drv_kpqw8&feature=youtube_gdata_player Westwood ASL- Deaf high school teacher-ASL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hnOmEWzlN4&feature=related
Click Clack Moo SEE vs. ASL • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zzPDo4PVpg • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19YXU8QQXhA
Manually Coded English Systems • Signed English • Seeing Essential English (SEE I) • Linguistics of Visual English (L.O.V.E.) • Signing Exact English (SEE II)
Rochester Method • 1876 • Zenas Westervelt, deaf • Rochester School for the Deaf
Summary for MCE • SEE1: BUTTER + FLY, visual English; BOW has only one sign (Bow and Arrow, Bow you tie…) • SEE2: spin-off group from SEE1, one-to-one correspondence (BOW = 4 different signs); adds many initialized signs • Signed English: 14 markers, sometimes ASL signs to English word order; includes initialized signs. Often looks similar to SEE2.
Seeing Essential English • David Anthony, deaf, Gallaudet College • SEE1 • 1966
Signing Exact English • SEE2 • 1972 • Gerilee Gustason (deaf, PhD, Education USC)
LOVE • Dennis Wamper • 1972 • Gallaudet community • Robert Cornett • 1966 • Gallaudet community CUED SPEECH
Signed English • Mid 1970’s • Harry Borstein (deaf?) • Gallaudet College
Contact Signing • Continuum between ASL and English • Sometimes the varieties appear more ASL-like, and other times more like English (“contact varieties”- variations in contact signing) • Often called a “Pidgin”, but linguists generally now agree it is not a true Pidgin
Manually Coded English –systems They are not languages, but attempt to show visual EnglishThey include Signed English, SEE1, SEE2,… • You may see a continuum of signing which ranges from: • “Pure” ASL -----------------------------------------------------”Pure” MCE system • “conversational” ASL--------------------------------“Conv. “ Signed English • “Contact varieties” • “contact” ASL--------- ----------“contact” Signed Eng. • More Spatial attempt at “English” on the hands • Production of more Linear, try to think in sounds • meaningful units initialized signs, • Conceptual accuracy 14 markers • full language follow English order • visually “makes sense” often use lips, voice • Note: “contact varieties” used to be called Pidgin Signed English- not anymore