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Unit III: Political Participation Advanced Placement Government and Politics. Chapter 5 : Public Opinion. The views of many people on subjects of politics and government Hard to define Many diverse “publics” So many opinions…hard to quantify Opinion on most issues is

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chapter 5 public opinion
Chapter 5 : Public Opinion
  • The views of many people on subjects of politics and government
    • Hard to define
    • Many diverse “publics”
    • So many opinions…hard to quantify
    • Opinion on most issues is
      • Uninformed; we have no idea what is being asked
      • Unstable; changes based on new data, news, etc…
      • Sensitive to how question is asked
sources of public opinion
Sources of Public Opinion
  • Family
    • Political affiliation almost totally a factor of parents
    • Policy preferences not related to party/parents
    • Political ideology communicated from parents
  • Religion
    • Catholics more liberal
    • Protestants more conservative
    • Jewish most liberal
    • Theories as to why?
      • Immigrant experiences
      • Content of religions
more sources of public opinion
More Sources of Public Opinion
  • Gender
    • Women more likely to be Republican/Conservative after 1950’s
    • Women more likely to be Democrats since 1980’s
    • Shift due to changing party positions on gender-sensitive issues like:
      • War
      • gun control
      • Pornography
      • Prohibition
      • Abortion
      • Etc…
even more sources of public opinion
Even More Sources of Public Opinion
  • Schooling/Education/Information
    • College students more liberal than population
      • Even more liberal at prestigious schools
      • Social science teachers/students most liberal
      • Younger faculty most liberal
    • Extends beyond college due to increasing political participation
      • Not college at all, personal traits
      • Exposure to more information, viewpoints, cultures, etc…
      • Liberalism of professors, materials, textbooks, etc…
      • Effect has increased as more people attend college
changes in public opinion
Changes in Public Opinion
  • Social Class
    • Working Class v. Upper Class
    • More important in 1950’s on issues like unemployment, education, housing, welfare
    • Less important in 1960’s on issues like poverty, health care, Vietnam, jobs
    • Determination of party affiliation, liberal/conservative identity now caused less by economic issues
race and ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity
  • Has become more important on issues like busing, home sales, death penalty, defense, and welfare
  • African-Americans are most consistently liberal racial/ethnic group in US
  • Hispanic-Americans less liberal on issues like abortion, welfare, death penalty, crime prevention, etc… (depends greatly on family’s original country of origin)
  • Asian-Americans more likely to be conservative
geographic region
Geographic Region
  • Affect political attitudes; Southern and Northern Americans disagree on many issues
  • Regional differences greater on non-economic issues
  • South used to be “Solid South” (Democratic until 1980)
  • Southern lifestyle different
    • More accommodating to business
    • Less supportive of labor (unions)
    • Gave greater support to 3rd parties (G. Wallace, R. Perot, etc…)
    • Opposed to income-redistribution plans
  • Southerners more conservative socially
  • Becoming less loyal to Democratic Party
  • Only Presidential candidate that could have won w/out South was LBJ since 1940
political ideology
Political Ideology
  • The philosophical differences between people regarding governmental policies and issues
  • Most citizens display little and know less
  • Many people do not have strong predispositions to any one ideology
  • View that people have inconsistent opinions is arbitrary and assumes all liberals/ conservatives share identical views
political ideology1
Political Ideology
  • Liberalism: philosophy that government should do more to regulate the economy and have less involvement in people’s personal choices
  • Conservatism: philosophy that government should do more to regulate people’s personal behavior and less regulation of the economy
fdr s liberalism
FDR’s “Liberalism”
  • New Deal=Liberal
  • Government intervention in the economy
  • Social welfare programs
  • Helping labor gain power
  • Increase the size/power of the middle class
  • Some equalization of wealth and opportunity
opponents to fdr called themselves conservatives
Opponents to FDR called themselves Conservatives
  • Free markets rather than regulated
  • State’s rights rather than national supremacy
  • Self-reliance; gov can’t do it all!
  • Less equalization of wealth
  • Less support of labor
  • Individual choice/opportunity
  • Etc…
analyzing consistency
Analyzing Consistency
  • Pure Liberal: tax the rich, regulate business, and leave my personal life alone.
  • Pure Conservative: “Don’t tax you, don’t tax me, tax that guy behind the tree.” Strom Thurmond, Sen. SC. Leave the economy alone, control the behavior of “bad” people.
  • Libertarian: Leave me and the economy alone!
  • Populist: Government should regulate everything and tax everyone! (except me!)
chapter 6 voting
Chapter 6: Voting!
  • The problem of Non-Voting:
    • Alleged American Problem: people don’t vote
    • It appears that fewer Americans (%) vote compared to other nations
    • 50% of Americans vote; 90%+ vote in Europe
    • Argentina has 100% turnout!
    • Comparison is skewed:
      • Compare our % of voting age people who vote to their % of registered voters who vote
      • Makes a 34% difference in the statistics
common explanation apathy
Common Explanation: Apathy!
  • Not real source for problem
  • Real problem in US is the REGISTRATION RATE!
  • Most who register will vote
  • How can we get people to vote?
    • Attempts:
      • Motor Voter Act
      • Get Out The Vote
      • Vote or Die
      • Choose or Lose
      • Etc…
proposed solution get out the vote
Proposed Solution: Get out the Vote
  • Won’t work; need to register first
  • Need a way to get more people to register
  • Apathy towards voting is not the issue
apathy not only cause of non registration
Apathy not only cause of non-registration
  • Why won’t people register???
    • May not care about politics/civic duty
    • Burden is on the individual
    • More “costly” to register (time, effort, etc…)
    • Americans are reasonably satisfied w/ gov’t
    • Fear of looking stupid (not sure how)
    • Language barriers
    • Lack of information/education
voting is not the only way to participate
Voting is not the only way to participate
  • Join civic organization (Lion’s Club, Rotary, Knights of Columbus, Masons, etc…)
  • Support movement (gun control, abortion rights, immigration, flag burning, etc…)
  • Write Congressman
  • “fight city hall” (protest)
  • Join interest group (NRA, AARP, ACLU, etc…)
  • Contribute to campaign (time, money, talent)
  • Take part in political party activities
  • Express opinion (talk radio, blog, tweet, etc…)
  • Run for office yourself
  • Etc…
movement towards universal suffrage
Movement Towards Universal Suffrage
  • Originally, most voter requirements left to State (except: Most Numerous House Rule)
  • Lots of variation from State to State on who was eligible to vote
  • In beginning few could vote because of
    • Age
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Property ownership
    • Taxes
    • gender
constitutional amendments laws supreme court decisions changed from state to federal control
Constitutional Amendments, Laws, Supreme Court Decisions Changed from State to Federal Control
  • 15th amendment: race
  • 17th amendment: Senators
  • 19th amendment: Gender
  • 23rd amendment: Washington, D.C.
  • 24th amendment: poll tax
  • 26th amendment: 18+ year olds voting rights
  • 1842 law requiring House to be elected by District not State-wide
  • Laws requiring all federal elections to be held on same day in every State
voting rights for african americans and other minorities
Voting Rights for African-Americans and other Minorities
  • 15th amendment made ineffective by Supreme Court
  • Southern States attempts to disfranchise voters:
    • Literacy tests
    • Poll tax
    • White primaries
    • Grandfather clauses
    • Gerrymandering
    • Violence/intimidation
women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage
  • Western States allowed women to vote by mid 1870’s
  • 19th Amendment 1920
  • No major change in the outcome of elections has resulted from women voting
  • WHY not?
youth vote
Youth Vote
  • Voting Rights Act of 1970
  • 26th Amendment 1971
  • Low turnout
  • No support for any one party
voter turnout
Voter Turnout
  • A real decline in turnout does exist (except 2008/2012)
    • Decline in popular interest
    • Less competitive parties
    • Same old people running (except Obama)
    • No “real” issues of interest to the majority
    • Lots of other things to do
    • Etc…
decline in turnout is more apparent than real
Decline in turnout is more apparent than real
  • Induced by a more honest count of ballots
  • Voter fraud was more commonplace before 1980
  • Parties used to print all the ballots (mark them too)
  • No secret ballots (cast vote publically)
  • Parties controlled count (padding)
  • Parties used “floaters” and “repeaters” to increase turnout
most scholars see a real decline in turnout
Most scholars see a real decline in turnout
  • After 1890, registration more difficult
  • Longer residency requirements (up to 1 yr)
  • “Australian Ballot” adopted
  • Aliens no longer able to vote
  • Racial discrimination
  • Educational requirements to vote (some States)
  • Register much longer in advance of election
who can participate in politics
Who can participate in politics?
  • Forms of Participation:
    • Inactives (do nothing!)
    • Voting Specialists (only vote)
    • Campaigners (vote and volunteer)
    • Communalists (work on civic issues w/in community; write to congressmen, vote, but don’t like parties)
    • Parochial Participants: (don’t vote, stay out of elections and civic organizations, but will contact politicians about issues)]
    • Complete Activists: (do it all! Vote, campaign, join parties, in civic organizations, protest, write letters, etc…)
what influences participation
What influences participation?
  • Family (Mom and Pop are #1!)
  • Education (on politics)
  • Age
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Smaller factors
    • Larger population of young people and minorities
    • Decreasing effectiveness of parties
    • Remaining impediments to registration
    • Apathy: feeling that elections/vote doesn’t matter
political parties
Political Parties:
  • Definition: a group of people who seek to control government by winning elections and holding office
  • Exist in 3 arenas:
    • Label in minds of voter
    • Organizations that recruit and campaign
    • Set of leaders that try to control gov/agenda
decentralization of parties
Decentralization of Parties
  • Results from:
    • Federal system
    • Locally based party system
    • Primary elections select candidates
    • Separate elections for Congress and President
weaknesses of american parties
Weaknesses of American Parties
  • Institutional and legal factors
    • Fund-raising laws
    • Spending limits
    • Free speech/Fairness Doctrine
  • American political culture
    • Parties unimportant to most Americans
    • Parties are separate from the rest of our lives

* Most Americans are independents!

political party history
Political Party History
  • The “Founding” Period (1789-1824
    • Framers opposed parties or factions
    • Washington warns against them in farewell address
    • Policy and elections disputes (Hamilton v. Jefferson) and legitimacy of gov
    • Federalists (Hamilton/Adams) and Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson)
    • Weak party structure
      • Experimental system
      • No past to tie to
      • Political leaders are not professional politicians
      • Federalists have limited base (rich!)
      • Mostly made up of local notables w. no national following
      • Participation was limited
      • No representation on clear economic issues
jacksonian era 1824 1861
Jacksonian Era (1824-1861)
  • Political participation become mass phenomenon
    • More voters available (population grew, fewer restrictions)
    • Party system built from bottom up (local to national)
    • Abandonment of Presidential Caucuses
    • Party Convention developed to nominate presidential candidates
civil war and sectionalism 1861 1911
Civil War and Sectionalism (1861-1911)
  • Jacksonian system could not survive slavery issue
  • Democrats and Whigs split over slavery, new parties emerged
  • Republican Party emerges as dominant national party due to:
    • Lincoln’s Election
    • Civil War
    • Bryan’s nomination by the Democrats in 1896
  • 1896-1930 North will be solidly Republican; South will be solidly Democrat
  • One party States developed, dividing by factions
  • Factions especially strong among Republicans:
    • Stalwarts (Old Guard)
    • Mugwumps, Progressives, Reformers
the era of reform 1912 1948ish
The Era of Reform (1912-1948ish)
  • Progressives supported measures to curtail partisan power
    • Primary elections
    • Non-partisan elections
    • Opposed business-party alliances
    • Stricter voter registration requirements
    • Civil service reforms
    • Initiative and referendum
  • Effects of Progressivism
    • Reduced the worst forms of political corruption
    • Weakened all political parties
national parties today 1948 now
National Parties Today (1948-NOW!)
  • Two Kinds of party structures
    • Democrats : Fractional or factional party
    • Republicans: organized party (run like a business)
  • Structural similarities
    • National Convention
    • National Committee
    • Congressional Campaign Committee
    • National Chairman(woman)
  • Appear to be controlled top down
    • Not true
    • At every level (local, County, State, National) organization does whatever it wants.
    • No real national control
the two party system
The Two Party System
  • A political system in which two major parties dominate.
  • Only 15 of 131 nations have
  • Two parties are evenly balanced nationally, but have local loyalties
  • Why is 2 party system for permanent in US?
    • Plurality system: Winner Take ALL!
    • Single-member Districts for US HoR
    • State election laws (like TX)
    • Opinion of workers/US Citizens who prefer it
minor or third parties
Minor or Third Parties
  • Smaller political associations that rarely win in national or State elections
  • Types of:
    • Ideological (Nazi, Communist, Worker World, etc)
    • Single-issue (Right to Life, Green, Know-nothing)
    • Economic Protest(Greenback, United We Stand American)
    • Splinter (Bull-Moose, Dixiecrats, Populists)
roles of third party
Roles of Third Party
  • Spoiler: take enough votes away from major party candidate to “spoil” their victory
  • Innovator: bring new idea to debate
  • Critic: criticize BOTH major parties
political party finance
Political Party Finance
  • “Money is the Mother’s Milk of Politics”
  • Golden Rule of Politics: “He with the most gold, RULES!”

Speaker of the House, Tip O’Neal

presidential campaign finance
Presidential Campaign Finance
  • Total spent in 2012: $5.3 Billion
  • Obama: $1.4 Billion
  • Romney: $1.37 Billion
  • Independent Expenditures: $1.27 Billion
  • Parties: $1.26 Billion
    • Source: Open Secrets
sources of
Sources of $
  • Federal Matching Funds (Pres only)
  • Federal Lump Sum Grants (Congress only)
  • Family or Self (Mr. Romney)
  • Individual Small Donors ($25-50) biggest source in 2008
  • Political Parties
  • Fund-raisers: concerts, dinners ($30,000 to eat w/ Obama’s), cocktail parties, Bar-b-ques, picnics, fish fries, auctions, etc…
functions of parties
Functions of Parties
  • Nomination
  • Informer-stimulator
  • Bonding Agent
  • Governmental
  • Watchdog
road to the white house or 10 steps to be prez
Road to the White House or10 Steps to be PREZ!

#1: Create campaign organization and “test the waters” . Start raising big $


#2: Self-announce at least a year before the Iowa Caucus and New Hampshire Primary

Good idea to announce on Larry King, Oprah, or other talk show(sorry Oprah, Larry King is still #1)


#3: Prepare for primaries and caucuses

-what’s your strategy?

-what’s your message?

-do you want to “front load?

-should you skip NH and IA? (think Guiliani!)

Why are New Hampshire and Iowa the keys to your future success or failure?


#4: Choose your message/strategy for getting the most delegates.

Should you focus on California? Texas? NY?

Mid-west ? South?

How long will your $ hold out?

Where should you visit?

Where should you buy ad time?


#5: Win the most primaries (or the biggest) so you can get the most delegates to the National Convention.

* Democrats also have Super Delegates!


#6: Control the Convention!

-Control Platform options

-Choose your own VP

-Select speakers


#7: Win the General Election in November!

Winner Take ALL System: win a plurality of popular votes in a State and get ALL of the States Electoral Votes!

Need 270 of 538 to be the winner

You need to win the BIG States!


#8: Win the majority of Electoral Votes in December (270 of 538)

If no one gets 270:

House chooses the Prez

Senate chooses the VP


#9: Inauguration: Noon on January 20th at the U.S. Capital

Do NOT be late! Your V-P is inaugurated first.

types of primary elections
Types of Primary Elections
  • Open: you may choose which party’s primary you want to vote in on election day
  • Closed: must register to vote as a party member and can only vote in their primary
  • Blanket: you can vote for one candidate from each party for each office
  • Run-off: no one got a majority of votes in the primary, so top 3 will try again!
how will you get your message image to the voters
How will you get your message/image to the voters?
  • #1: TV Ads
  • Internet (websites, e-mail, mass mail-outs, Twitter, U Tube, etc…)
  • Talk shows (Larry King Live, Oprah, Leno, etc)
  • Debates (only about 24% watched last time)
  • Direct mail campaigns
  • Public Appearances
  • Infomercials
  • Etc…
  • Where will you get over a Billion $ to be Prez?
    • Self
    • Regular people ($25-100)
    • Fat Cats
    • PACs (Political Action Committees)
    • The Party
    • Lobbyists
    • Family
    • The Fund Raiser
    • Etc…
fec rules as of 2012 from mccain feingold act amendments
FEC Rules as of 2012 from McCain-Feingold Act Amendments
  • Individuals may give
    • $2,000 to any candidate per election
    • $25,000 to any national party
    • $10,000 to a local party committee
    • $5,000 to any PAC
    • Total Individual Spending:
        • $95,000 each 2year cycle (campaign spending)
        • $37,500 to all candidates
        • $57,500 national parties
        • $37,500 to PACs
disclosure requirements
Disclosure Requirements
  • Everyone must provide a periodic accounting of donations and spending to FEC. (except Super PACs)
  • Any donation of over $200 must be disclosed by name, SS#, and home address
prohibited donations
Prohibited Donations
  • Corporations
  • Labor Unions
  • Federal Government Contractors
  • Non-citizens
  • No one may make a donation in another’s name
  • No one may make a cash contribution over $100
independent expenditures
Independent Expenditures
  • Unlimited Spending!
  • Communication that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate which is made completely independently of any candidates campaign or party.
  • Disclosure requirements for the sources of the funds are required.
corporations labor unions
Corporations/Labor Unions
  • Cannot donate
  • Cannot create independent ads
  • Can form a PAC
citizens united v federal election commission 2010
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 2010
  • Campaign Reform Act was declared to be unconstitutional restriction of free speech
  • Corporations and Labor Unions were denied their free speech rights since Congress outlaw their campaign contributions to any political activity
  • Corporations and Labor Unions are still forbidden from giving DIRECT contributions to candidates/campaigns (Super PACs!)
  • Disclosure Requirements were upheld
political parties1
Political Parties
  • May raise funds directly for candidates
  • Must meet disclosure requirements
  • Must meet spending limitations
  • May use unlimited amount of $ for “party building” or “voter information drives”
presidential election campaign fund act
Presidential Election Campaign Fund Act
  • Fund comes from the voluntary contributions of US citizens when they check the box on their tax return
    • Primary Matching Funds (up to $30.91 M)
    • General Election Fund (up to $61.82 M)
    • Party Convention Grants($12.36 M)
    • Your party must have gotten at least 2% of the national vote in the previous presidential election to qualify for matching funds
soft money
Soft Money
  • Unlimited contributions spent on ISSUE ADS
    • Cannot mention a candidate by name
    • Must carry the name of the party or group sponsoring the ad
    • Was banned in McCain-Feingold Act
    • ACLU, AFL-CIO, and NRA filed suit in Supreme Court
    • Claimed violated free speech rights
    • They won! Soft money is currently legal without restrictions on amount spent
buckley v valeo
Buckley V. Valeo
  • Campaign $ is a form of FREE SPEECH
  • Congress can limit the amount of donations since they are a form of indirect speech
  • My money spent on my ad: cannot be limited since my money= Direct Speech
roles of interest groups
Roles of Interest Groups
  • Provide information
  • Testify before Congress
  • Write Bills
  • Rally public support for issues
  • Represent members’ views
  • Raise money for supportive candidates through PAC’s
  • LOBBY!!!!!!!!!!!!
what is a lobbyist
What is a lobbyist?
  • One who seeks to influence a member of Congress or the Executive Branch about the passage, failure, or implementation of legislation/.
what is lobbying what does a lobbyist do
What is Lobbying? What does a Lobbyist DO?
  • Try to get your Representatives, Senators, or members of the Executive Branch to respond to the interests of the people the lobbyist represents.
why do lobbyists have such an unsavory reputation
Why do lobbyists have such an unsavory reputation?
  • Too much influence in policy-making
  • Donations have the appearance of bribes
  • Great access to the political process
  • Some use unethical practices
  • Appear biased
  • Don’t always act in the public’s interest
techniques used by lobbyists
Techniques used by Lobbyists
  • Polite persuasion (#2)
  • Gathering and submitting data to Congress or Bureaucracy
  • Letter writing campaigns
  • The Wine and Dine
  • The FUND RAISER (#1)
  • Junkets (fun field trips for Congress to go to exotic location to “study” stuff)
  • Subtle threats
  • Etc…
legislation regulating lobbying in washington d c
Legislation Regulating Lobbying in Washington, D.C.
  • Lobbyists and Gov Officials must disclose donations and “gifts”
  • Junkets must be disclosed by both sides
  • Fund-raisers held in the District cannot have open bar
  • All food and drink served at a “reception” fund-raiser in DC must be consumed standing up
  • No gift of more than $1 can be given to members of Congress by Lobbyists
  • Lobbyists can take members of Congress to a meal or event twice a year for $50 per person
  • There is no legal limit on gifts to Staff! (some members of Congress do have limits for their employees- John McCain, Russ Feingold, etc…)
  • Old-friend Exception
iron triangles
Iron Triangles
  • Unbreakable links between :
    • Congressional Committees (Armed Services)
    • Interest Groups (those representing military contractors)
    • Federal Agencies (the Pentagon)
iron triangles1
Iron Triangles
  • Interest groups generally begin the process. They ask Congress to create a program, fund research, etc…
  • Congressional Committee staff want to increase their jurisdiction/budget
  • Federal agency staff want to increase their budgets, responsibilities, and justify their own job or need for additional staff
iron triangles2
Iron Triangles
  • Each of the three groups has an unbreakable link to the others
  • All are co-dependant
  • Personnel and information flow between the three groups

Chapter 10: The Media“The Watchdog of Democracy” –Thomas JeffersonI would rather have a free press than freedom of religion”-Thomas Jefferson

media s impact on campaigns and elections
Media’s Impact on Campaigns and Elections
  • Campaign Costs
  • Paid Media V. Free Media
  • Requirements for coverage (“If it bleeds, it leads!”)
  • Sound Bites (30-60 seconds)
  • Scripted Events
  • Photo Ops
  • Role of the Debates
  • Damage Control
  • Spin
  • Negative Campaigning
  • Use of “spin doctors” (consultants)
  • Determining what is newsworthy
  • Attack Dogs (Carville, Matlin, Limbaugh, etc…)
  • Relationship between media and politicians (symbiotic)
three functions of media
Three Functions of Media
  • Report what happened (w/out bias)
  • Investigate accusations/scandals
  • Act as a Watchdog on Government
politicians use the media
Politicians USE the Media
  • Control of the message
  • Use of staff
  • Use of “trial balloons”
  • Use of polls
  • Scripted events
  • Photo ops
  • Sound bites
media use politicians
Media USE Politicians
  • 24 hours news cycle requires they have something to report…ANYTHING!
  • Reporters cultivate relationships with politicians to get the scoop
  • Paparazzi-style “journalism”
  • “gotcha” news
  • 30-60 second stories
  • Focus on personality, not issues(too complex)
  • Photo ops
  • Look for the oops
  • “create” news (?)
  • Etc…
the relationship between the people and the media
The Relationship between the people and the media
  • Selective Attention (change the channel)
  • Hyper-democracy (so many choices!)
  • Believability
  • Skepticism and cynicism
  • Impact on voter turnout
is the media biased
Is the media biased?
  • YES! All humans are to some degree.
  • Liberal?
  • Conservative?
  • Just a perception?
laws governing the media and politics
Laws governing the Media and politics
  • Libel: untrue and hurtful in print
  • Slander: untrue and hurtful verbally
    • Public Person Exception: must show actual damage and intent
  • Obscenity : define in Miller V. California;

3 part test

a. prurient interests

b. depicts or describes in a patently offensive manner an illegal sexual act

c. has no social, political, scientific, medical, artistic value

  • Equal Time
  • Right of Reply: when a claim is made about you, your right to respond
  • Political Editorializing: must give equal time to other side of the issue
frq s
  • Minor Parties
    • Identify
    • Why don’t they ever win?
    • How do they contribute to the political system?
frq s1

2. Why is it difficult for Congress to pass comprehensive campaign finance reform?

a. identify

b. Buckley v. Valeo

c. soft money

d. incumbency advantages

remember to identify and explain!

frq s2

3. Why have campaigns become more “Candidate-centered”?

a. identify

b. how has the media contributed to this?

c. how have candidates used the media to make the campaigns more candidate-centered?

frq s3

4. Pick one of the major parties and:

  • Identify it
  • Identify major characteristics of it
  • Relationship to interest groups
  • Relationship to American History
  • How it adapted to societal changes
  • Relationship to 3rd parties
frq s4

5. Struggle for universal suffrage:

a. identify it

b. relate it to:

-15th amendment

-grandfather clause

-white primaries

-19th amendment

-24th amendment


frq s5

6. America’s voter turnout problem

a. identify it

b. explain why stats are inaccurate

c. explain real issue

d. explain how States have tried to resolve the issue