PAN-AFRICIANISM and National Identity in Africa. Kwame Nkrumah and Ghana. Educated in the United States. leads of the Pan-African Congress. Linked educated groups of Africans together. (activists, writers, artists) to fight for Independence in Africa.
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Kwame Nkrumah and Ghana • Educated in the United States. • leads of the Pan-African Congress. • Linked educated groups of Africans together. (activists, writers, artists) to fight for Independence in Africa. • 1947 creates the Convention People’s Party.
Pan-Africanism • common goals = • the unity of Africans • elimination of colonialism and white supremacy from the continent. • However, the meaning of leadership, kinds of government, and regional interests differed
Independence 1958 • Nkrumah was made president by the British. • He then declares The Gold Coast colony independent in 1958. • Renames it GHANA (refers back to ancient African Kingdom). • First Conference of Independent African States, in Ghana. • “United States of Africa.” • model for the rest of African Independence movements. • Non-Alignment Movement • 1960 declares Ghana a Republic.
Nkrumah’s choices: • “African Socialism” • Combination of modern growth and traditional values. • Seven Year Plan. • Government controls all economic markets • monopolies on crops. • rural based economies to industrialization. How did Nkrumah help create a new national identity for Ghanaians?
Kwame Nkrumah’s Downfall • 1964 declares himself President for Life -> dictatorship! • While Nkrumah visits North Korea his military stages a coup de tat • forces Nkrumah into exile. • Dies in exile but buried in Ghana. • Constitution written in 1993. Democracy today.
Patrice Lumumba • Born into a small and non- important tribe. • WAS NOT educated in the West. • Leads the Congolese National Movement Party. • Takes part in All-African People's Conference in Accra, Ghana. Buddies with Nkrumah. • June 23, 1960 Independence from the Belgians.
WAR! • Three days after independence part of the army rebels. • Lumumba is killed. • Lots of war. • the country renamed Zaire. • Lots of ethnic wars. • Renamed Democratic Republic of Congo • 2005: Constitution is written. How do you think the vast number of ethnic groups in the Congo affects the formation of a national identity?
Union of South Africa 1910 • Union of South Africa 1910. • Self-governing part of the British Empire. • Made up of 4 British Colonies. • Constitution= power to the Whites. • African National Congress 1912. • Get rid of practices based on race. • Blacks want representation in South African Parliament vs. 1960s, the ANC and Pan-African Congress (PAC) were banned.
Apartheid: “separateness” • Independence =1961 Republic of South Africa. • Continue to use racist policies. • Protest in Sharpeville • Nelson Mandela arrested and thrown in jail. How does this separateness effect the formation of National Identity in South Africa?
Apartheid • http://youtu.be/Y9WB5nOnHIY Propaganda against Apartheid in 1988.
Nelson Mandela • Educated Tribal Elite • joined the African National Congress. = Non-Violent Protests • Later proposes a violent branch of the ANC. • Arrested in thrown into prison for 27 years.
End of Apartheid… • 1991 • Apartheid is officially abolished. • ANC allowed back. • Mandela released from prison. • 1993 Constitution written. • Nelson Mandala is elected President. • nonracial elections were held on April, 1994 • 1997 New Constitution • dedicated to reforming the nation. • Mandela steps down from power.
South Africa Today • parliamentary democracy • constitutional power is shared between the president and the Parliament.