Exam answer Key • 1. Diocletian:Restored order in the empire & increased its • strength • Governed as an absolute ruler • Severely limited personal freedoms • Viewed Christianity as a threat • He believed that the empire had grown too • large & too complex for one man • Divided the empire into two • Western (Latin-speaking) and • Eastern (Greek speaking)
1. Constantine:Gained control of the Western part of the Empire • In 330 AD moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium • With Byzantium (Constantinople) was the new capital • the center of power shifted from Rome to Constantinople • The Western Roman Empire survive until 476 AD, when it • ceased to have a Roman Emperor • East Roman Empire became the Byzantine Empire survived • and become Byzantine Empire
1. Justinian: Reconquest of former Roman territories • Expansion of trade • Hagia Sophia, codified Roman law. 2. Easily fortified site , Projection of eastern frontier and crossroads of trade
3. Eastern Orthodox Christianity • Centered in Constantinople • Close to seat of power after Constantinople became capital • Use of Greek language in the liturgy • Roman Catholic Church • Centered in Rome • Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital • Use of Latin language in the liturgy • Authority of the Pope eventually accepted in the West • Authority of the Patriarch accepted in the East • Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West
4. Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade. • Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea • Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe
5. Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet) 6.The prophet created islam • 7. Split over the question of who should have succeeded Mohammed • Successor of Muhammad • Sunni (Majority) is selected or elected • Shi’s (Minority) successor must be direct descendant of the Prophet’s family
8. Faith • Pray • Almsgiving • Fasting during the month of Ramadan • Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca • 9. Translation of ancient texts into Arabic • Universities • Arabic alphabet • Arabic numerals ( adapted from India) including zero • Algebra • Medicine • Expansion of geographic knowledge
10.Hejira: The journey of Muhammad and his supporters from mecca to medina to escape persecution Hajj: One of the five pillars of a Muslim a pilgrimage to the holy city Quran: The most holy text of Islam Jihad: A holy war with the purpose of spreading Islam • Ramadan: the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset. .
11. Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia and into Spain • Facilitated by weakening of Byzantine and Persian Empires
12. The gradual decline of the Roman Empire, the Church was the institution that survived • Became the unifying force in western Europe • Monasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements • Missionaries carried Christianity and the Latin alphabet to the Germanic tribes • Local Parish priests served the social and religious needs of the people
13. Feudalism is a Political System based on Germanic Customs • Feudalism is depended on who controls the land***** • Feudal system was based on mutual obligations, in exchanged for military protection or other services to the lord • Society • Powerful lords divide lands (fief) among lesser lords (peasants and any towns/bldgs on land) • Lesser lords (vassals) pledge service and loyalty (Vassals could have fiefs from several lords
14. Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe, Charlemagne 15. Angles and Saxons 16. Angles and Saxons, Muslims, Magyars and Vikings, Shattered the Roman protection over Europe.Invasions disrupted trade routes, towns declined, and the feudal system was reinforced
17. The Silk Road • The Indian Ocean trade network • The Trans-Saharan caravan route • The Northern and Eastern trade network • 18. By 2500 B.C. the Saharan region had begun to dry up, becoming a major obstacle for travelers, Disease traveled along trade routes • In 1347 A.D. the bubonic plague, better known as the Black Death, reached Europe and killed millions • The Black Death came from ports along the Black Sea, carried by Italian merchant ships • Another negative interaction was the beginning of the African slave trade • Africans were traded for goods in W. Africa and moved along the Saharan caravan routes
19. Gold from W. Africa • Spices from India and Indian ocean region • Porcelain from China and Persia • Textiles from India, China, the Mid-East, and later Europe • Amber from the Baltic region Paper from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe • Improved navigational charts and lateen sail came from the Indian Ocean Region
20. Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan • Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia • Islam from the Mideast to West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia • Writing and Architecture • 21. Axum became a Christian kingdom after 324 A.D, when missionaries came to their ports • The Axumites were known for their stelae: large, decorated stone columns built to mark royal tombs • In 1300 A.D., the nation of Zimbabwe had developed in southern Africa • Zimbabwe had developed along the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers • The nation centered around their capital of Great Zimbabwe • The people of Zimbabwe were efficient farmers and raised vast herds of cattle
22. Ghana grew prosperous from the gold and salt trade in West Africa • Salt was necessary for flavoring and preserving foods • This trade was taxed by the king of Ghana, who was also a religious and military leader • 23. Mali was expanded by their great king, Mansa Musa • He governed efficiently through provincial governors • Numerous mosques were built under his rule Sonni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber or "Sunni Ali", was born Ali Kolon. He reigned from about 1464 to 1492. Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty
24. Mesoamerican: Cultures from the region of Central America and Mexico 25. The main cultural center of the Maya was the city complex of Chichen Itza • By 900 A.D. the Maya had developed: • A written language • A calendar • Sophisticated mathematics and astronomy • The Maya were gone by 1300 A.D. • The reason for their destruction is a mystery, though historians now believe it was a result of overpopulation, drought, disease, or a combination of those factors
26. Aztec civilization developed after the Maya had fallen, in 1300 A.D. • The Aztec lived in the central valley of Mexico • Their capital city was Tenochtitlan They were ruled over by an emperor • Power was delegated to officials who ran the empire • Economy based on agriculture and tribute from conquered peoples • Polytheistic religion: Pyramids, rituals • The Aztec were finally conquered in the 1500s when the Spanish arrived in the Americas
27. Incan civilization was established in the 1400s A.D. • They lived in South America, in the northern Andes Mountain • To link their empire, the Inca built a complex system of roads • Farming was a challenge in the Andes Mountains. To meet this obstacle the Inca: • Built sophisticated irrigation canals • Terraced the hills and mountains The Inca, like the Aztec, were also conquered by the Spaniards in the 1500s 28. It is based on their agriculture and location.
29. A group of people who are ruled by one central government who share a common language and who feel a sense of loyalty to their nation 30. The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define England as a nation • 31. William the Conqueror • Leader of the Norman Conquest • United most of England
32. Force to sign the Magna Carta • Limited the power of the king • Guaranteed certain basic political rights • No Taxation without representations • Jury Trail • Protection of the laws • Considered the basic rights both n England and United States • Set up the Great Council • Evolution of Parliament 33.The Hundred Years’ War between England and France helped define England as a nation FRANCE, Joan of Arc was an unifying factor A 17 Year old peasant girl.
34. Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country and expelled Muslim Moors 35. Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols • Centralized power in Moscow • Expanded the Russia nation • Power was centralized in the hands of the Tsar Ivan the terrible managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russia.
36. Desire to free the Holy Land • Desire to win wealth and land • Search for adventure • Europeans’ desire to escape trouble at Home 37. Pope Urban’ s calls for a “holy war” to free the holy Land 1096 • Founding of the Crusaders states • Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin • Sack of Constantinople
38.. Economy • Increased trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East • Money economy grew • Monarchy • Increase power of feudal monarchs • Could collect taxes to support the Crusades • Feudalism declined because power became more centralized • Church • Weaken the Pope • Roman and Eastern Churches splits • Worldview • Increased contact with other peoples • Increased travel by Europeans • Wider world views • Weakened the Byzantine Empire
39. The bubonic plague, Decline in population • Scarcity of labor • Towns freed from Feudal obligations • Decline of Church influence • Disruption of trade 40. Wealth accumulated from Europe trade with Middle East • Wealth Merchants were active civic leaders • Renaissance produced new ideas in art, philosophy, and literature
41.Who is concerned with the interests and welfare of humans 42. Church rule against usury and the practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern Italy • Letters of Credit served to expand the supply of money • New accounting and bookkeeping practices ( use of Arabic numerals) 43. Merchants: wealth, powerful class, & dominated polities • Medici (MEHD id-chee)
44.. Middle Ages focused on The Church and salvation • Renaissance focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity • Humanism • Artists and Writers • Petrarch: sonnets, humanist and scholarship
45. Leonardo Da Vinci, Mona Lisa and last supper Michelangelo Sistine chapel and David Rafael: St. Peter's Basilica, Villa Madama 46. Machiavelli: the Prince and Petrarch: Laura 47.. Erasmus- The Praise of Folly (1511) • Sir Thomas More- Utopia (1516) William Shakespeare and Miguel de Cervantes: Renaissance Writers. 48. . Movable type-printing press and the production and sale of books helped disseminate ideas. • Gutenberg Bible
49. Greece 50. Patrician and Plebeian MEN 51. Republic, representative government 52. Twelve tables 53. Punic Wars 54. A time of peace and prosperity 55. The bible 56. Colosseum 57. Roman Law: all citizens are equal before the law