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SCIENTIFIC METHOD. PROCESSES OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. WHAT DO YOU DO WITH AN OBSERVATION?. INDUCTIVE REASONING DEDUCTIVE REASONING. INDUCTIVE REASONING. PROCESS OF GENERALIZING FROM SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS. EXAMPLE.

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scientific method

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

PROCESSES OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

what do you do with an observation
WHAT DO YOU DO WITH AN OBSERVATION?
  • INDUCTIVE REASONING
  • DEDUCTIVE REASONING
inductive reasoning

INDUCTIVE REASONING

PROCESS OF GENERALIZING FROM SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS

example

EXAMPLE

The average mass of cows in Vermont is 450kg therefore the average mass of all North American cows must be 450kg

deductive reasoning
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
  • START W/ VALID GENERALIZATION
  • REASON FROM IT
  • ARRIVE AT SPECIFIC CONCLUSION
example1

EXAMPLE

YOU DEDUCE THAT IF THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AFRICAN LIONS IN THE WILD IS 10 YEARS THEN THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF LIONS IN KENYA IS 10 YEARS

scientists go further they test ideas

SCIENTISTS GO FURTHER - THEY TEST IDEAS

WILL OBSERVATIONS MADE FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS SHOW THAT THE AVERAGE MASS OF COWS IS 450kg?

steps to scientific method
STEPS TO SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • MAKE OBSERVATIONS
  • FORM QUESTIONS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS
  • FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS
  • TEST HYPOTHESIS - REPEAT TESTS
  • ANALYZE RESULTS
  • CONCLUSION
in science there are no absolute truths

IN SCIENCE THERE ARE NO ABSOLUTE TRUTHS

AN IDEA IS CORRECT WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF OBSERVATIONS & TESTS WHICH IT IS DERIVED

theory principle
Set of ideas that form a general frame of reference for further study

Explanations have high probability of being valid

Evidence is so over- whelming that the explanation is further elevated

fundamental doctrine on which other concepts are based objectivity

THEORY PRINCIPLE
what is a hypothesis
WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?
  • A tentative explanation
  • To be scientific must be testable
  • Constructed to provide framework for stating the results of an experiment
  • Must be more specific than problem
testing the hypothesis
TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS
  • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE
  • CONTROLLED VARIABLE
independent variable

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

THE CONDITION OR EVENT UNDER STUDY

dependent variable

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Variables that can possibly change because of the presence of or change in an independent variable (What is measured in an experiment)

controlled varibles constants

CONTROLLED VARIBLES(CONSTANTS)

Conditions that could affect the outcome of an experiment but do not because they are held constant

random sampling

RANDOM SAMPLING

Subjects are randomly assorted into either experimental group or control group (ensures both groups are representative samples of the original population)

sampling error

SAMPLING ERROR

When a test group is not equivalent to a natural population, a sampling error is introduced to the experiment

systematic error
SYSTEMATIC ERROR
  • ERROR THAT OCCURS IN THE SAME DIRECTION EACH TIME AND IS ALWAYS EITHER TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW
organizing test results
ORGANIZING TEST RESULTS
  • DATA TABLES
  • GRAPHS
statistical tests

Statistical tests

determine if differences between experimental data and control data are significant or likely due only to chance.

generalizing from test results
GENERALIZING FROM TEST RESULTS
  • Hypothesis is accepted or rejected on basis of conclusions drawn
  • Statement is written about new insights gained
  • Apparent trends are noted
  • Further problems and hypotheses are posed