SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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# SCIENTIFIC METHOD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

SCIENTIFIC METHOD. PROCESSES OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. WHAT DO YOU DO WITH AN OBSERVATION?. INDUCTIVE REASONING DEDUCTIVE REASONING. INDUCTIVE REASONING. PROCESS OF GENERALIZING FROM SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS. EXAMPLE.

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Presentation Transcript

### SCIENTIFIC METHOD

PROCESSES OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

WHAT DO YOU DO WITH AN OBSERVATION?
• INDUCTIVE REASONING
• DEDUCTIVE REASONING

### INDUCTIVE REASONING

PROCESS OF GENERALIZING FROM SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS

### EXAMPLE

The average mass of cows in Vermont is 450kg therefore the average mass of all North American cows must be 450kg

DEDUCTIVE REASONING
• START W/ VALID GENERALIZATION
• REASON FROM IT
• ARRIVE AT SPECIFIC CONCLUSION

### EXAMPLE

YOU DEDUCE THAT IF THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AFRICAN LIONS IN THE WILD IS 10 YEARS THEN THE AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF LIONS IN KENYA IS 10 YEARS

### SCIENTISTS GO FURTHER - THEY TEST IDEAS

WILL OBSERVATIONS MADE FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS SHOW THAT THE AVERAGE MASS OF COWS IS 450kg?

STEPS TO SCIENTIFIC METHOD
• MAKE OBSERVATIONS
• FORM QUESTIONS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS
• FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS
• TEST HYPOTHESIS - REPEAT TESTS
• ANALYZE RESULTS
• CONCLUSION

### IN SCIENCE THERE ARE NO ABSOLUTE TRUTHS

AN IDEA IS CORRECT WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF OBSERVATIONS & TESTS WHICH IT IS DERIVED

Explanations have high probability of being valid

Evidence is so over- whelming that the explanation is further elevated

fundamental doctrine on which other concepts are based objectivity

THEORY PRINCIPLE
WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?
• A tentative explanation
• To be scientific must be testable
• Constructed to provide framework for stating the results of an experiment
• Must be more specific than problem
TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS
• INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
• DEPENDENT VARIABLE
• CONTROLLED VARIABLE

### INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

THE CONDITION OR EVENT UNDER STUDY

### DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Variables that can possibly change because of the presence of or change in an independent variable (What is measured in an experiment)

### CONTROLLED VARIBLES(CONSTANTS)

Conditions that could affect the outcome of an experiment but do not because they are held constant

### RANDOM SAMPLING

Subjects are randomly assorted into either experimental group or control group (ensures both groups are representative samples of the original population)

### SAMPLING ERROR

When a test group is not equivalent to a natural population, a sampling error is introduced to the experiment

SYSTEMATIC ERROR
• ERROR THAT OCCURS IN THE SAME DIRECTION EACH TIME AND IS ALWAYS EITHER TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW
ORGANIZING TEST RESULTS
• DATA TABLES
• GRAPHS

### Statistical tests

determine if differences between experimental data and control data are significant or likely due only to chance.

GENERALIZING FROM TEST RESULTS
• Hypothesis is accepted or rejected on basis of conclusions drawn
• Statement is written about new insights gained
• Apparent trends are noted
• Further problems and hypotheses are posed