What do you think Scientific Method is? • Scientific Method is a method used to conduct scientific investigations.
The Scientific Method The Scientific Method involves the following steps: • Make observations/Form a question • Formulate a hypothesis • Design/Undertake a controlled experiment • Collect & record data • Form a conclusion from the data • Compare the conclusion with your hypothesis • Reporting and publishing the results • Developing theories and principles
1. Observation You observe something using your senses or machines which are basically extensions of those senses.
1. Form a Question • You ask a question about what you observed. • Form a question about a specific event or reaction • E.g. How does human activity affect global warming? What enables birds to migrate such long distances?
3. Design/Conduct an Experiment • Devise a way to test whether your hypothesis is correct or not. • Create a controlled experiment. • A controlled experiment MUST have 2 groups. • The outcome must be measurable. • Record and analyze data.
4. Collect/Record Data • Once you have done the experiment, record the results. • You repeat the experiment to confirm your results.
5. Draw Conclusions • Try to explain your results of the experiment.
6. Compare • You compare your conclusion with existing knowledge. • Was your hypothesis proved?
Finally • You Report and Publish your results. • You Develop a theory or principle.
The Edward Jenner Story • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJwGNPRmyTI
The Scientific method e.g. Edward Jenner’s investigation Jenner noticed that people who caught Cowpox (a minor disease) did not seem to get Smallpox(a fatal disease). Jenner hypothesised that if someone got cowpox and recovered then they would not get smallpox. • The Scientist • makes an Observation • A hypothesis • is formed. (A hypothesis is an educated guess based on the initial observation).
An experiment is designed to test the hypothesis. 4. Interpretation ofresults. 5. Conclusion Jenner injected a boy with cowpox and later injected him with smallpox. Jenner tested the boy for smallpox and found that he did not have it. Jenner concluded that a person who once had cowpox would not get smallpox.
Lets try our own experiment. • Starch experiment • 1. Form a question • 2. Form a hypothesis using an indicator = Does the type of indicator used to test starch matter? = The type of indicator used matters when determining is starch present in bread
Lets try our own experiment. • 3. Design/Conduct an experiment • 4. Record results = Place water on one part of the bread & iodine on the other part. = Bread turned blue/black when iodine was added but no colour change when water was used.
Lets try our own experiment. • 5. Form a conclusion • 6. Compare = type of indicator matters when testing for starch. = Was hypothesis proved or rejected? It was proved!
Scientific Method Song • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MV8lSmIo4Ac