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The Munich Putsch. Recall & Recap. Write 5 facts about the Munich Putsch. Why didn’t the events of 1923 destroy the Weimar Republic?. How successful was the Munich Putsch?. What were the political crises of 1923?. What was the Munich Putsch?.

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The Munich Putsch

Recall & Recap

Write 5 facts about the Munich Putsch


Why didn’t the events of 1923 destroy the Weimar Republic?

How successful was the Munich Putsch?

What were the political crises of 1923?

What was the Munich Putsch?


Prestructural: The point or concept has not been understood. The student may have a number of unconnected ideas but cannot distinguish relevance.

Unistructural: One relevant idea is explained. Can separate relevant from non-relevant ideas. May be a couple of simple and obvious connections but their significance isn’t grasped.

Multistructural: Several relevant ideas on the topic. Several connections may be made but their significance to the whole isn’t grasped.

Relational: Understands and explains complex relationships related to the idea or concept. Understands relationship of parts to the whole.

Extended Abstract: Shows profound understanding. Transfer takes place. Makes new connections. Can apply to wider contexts and new applications.


The Munich Putsch

In 1923, Hitler helped organise the Munich Putsch – an attempt to seize control of Munich.

The attempt failed dismally. Hitler was arrested for treason and thrown into prison.

However, in the long run the whole affair actually helped to strengthen his position!

Photograph courtesy of the Imperial War Museum.

  • His trial gave publicity to the Nazi movement.
  • He reviewed and altered his political philosophy.

The Munich Putsch – Hitler’s trial

1. Hitler’s trial gave publicity to the Nazi movement.


The Munich Putsch – Mein Kampf

2. Hitler reviewed his political philosophy.

Whilst locked away in prison he dictated a book to one of his most faithful followers, Rudolf Hess.

He entitled this book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). In it, he developed two important principles.

  • The Fuhrer Principle – Hitler argued that to be successful, his party needed one all-powerful leader (‘fuhrer’) – in other words, Hitler himself!
  • The Reichstag Principle – Hitler argued that outright rebellion would never destroy the system. Instead, it would be necessary to “hold our noses and enter the Reichstag [parliament]” – in other words, get elected and then destroy the system from within.

Continued weakness, 1924–28

Despite Hitler’s efforts, the Nazis remained a minor political force.

In 1924 they had 5% of the seats in the Reichstag.

In 1928 they had less than 2% – even the Communists had four times as many seats!

One reason for this was that Stresemann had helped to stabilize the country:

  • 1924: Dawes Plan eases the reparations bill.
  • 1925: Locarno Treaties improve relations with France.
  • 1926: Germany allowed to join the League of Nations.

How successful was the Munich Putsch?

What can you learn from this source about the Munich Putsch?

Source A“In the afternoon Hitler, Ludendorff and their supporters set off on a march through Munich. They had few weapons. 2000 rifles which had been secretly supplied by the German army had no firing pins. In the Odeonplatz they were met by a group of Bavarian state troopers. In the fight that followed 16 Nazis were killed along with four troopers. Hitler’s colleague Goering was seriously wounded. Ludendorff was arrested at the scene. Hitler stayed in the background and fled the scene but was arrested 48 hours later.”

Richard Radway, 2004.


How successful was the Munich Putsch?

How does this source add to our knowledge of the event gained from Source A?

Source BHitler fell, either pulled down or seeking cover. One man alone kept his head. Ludendorff marched steadily on, pushed through the line of police…the situation might have been saved but not a single man followed him. Hitler at the critical moment lost his nerve. According to eyewitnesses, one of them a National Socialist…, Hitler was the first to scramble to his feet and…allowed himself to be pushed…into a yellow motorcar.

A Bullock, 1952.


How successful was the Munich Putsch?

What does the phrase ‘seemed to snatch some kind of victory out of the jaws of defeat ’ tell you about the overall success of the Munich Putsch?

Source C

It was at this point that Hitler seemed to snatch some kind of victory out of the jaws of defeat. The trial gave him a national platform on which to speak…Newspapers throughout Germany and around the world reported his claim that he had led the movement against the ‘treasonable’ Weimar system…

Lacey and Shephard, 1997.


How successful was the Munich Putsch?

According to Sources C and D, what ‘victories’ could the Nazis claim to have achieved?

Source D

The court was also sympathetic to Hitler. Instead of sentencing him to death as it might have done, it gave him the minimum sentence for the offence – five years imprisonment. The judges also made it clear that he could expect an early release. In fact, Hitler served just nine months of his sentence…He spent much of the time dictating the first part of his book, Mein Kampf (‘My Struggle’). Imprisonment provided Hitler with a period of enforced leisure in which he was able to sort out his main ideas.

Stephen Lee, 1996.


Why didn’t the events of 1923 destroy the Weimar Republic?

How successful was the Munich Putsch?

What were the political crises of 1923?

What was the Munich Putsch?




Extended Response Questions


Recap & Recall



Recap & Recall



Events of 1923

Events of 1923












What do you consider to have been the successes of the Munich Putsch?

How important was the Munich Putsch in the rise of the Nazi Party? (5)

Planning your response: