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Design for the Environment. Felicia Kaminsky ESM 595F 2 November 2000. Outline. History and Definitions EPA Cooperative Industry Projects Printing Garment Care Corporate Environmental Policy Xerox Lucent Conclusions & Discussion. Defining “DfE”. Concept pioneered by industry

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Design for the environment l.jpg

Design for the Environment

Felicia Kaminsky

ESM 595F

2 November 2000

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  • History and Definitions

  • EPA Cooperative Industry Projects

    • Printing

    • Garment Care

  • Corporate Environmental Policy

    • Xerox

    • Lucent

  • Conclusions & Discussion

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Defining “DfE”

  • Concept pioneered by industry

  • US EPA Program

    • Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

  • Over the past decade – created from several voluntary initiatives

    • Safer chemicals

    • Comparative risk analysis

    • Alternative technology

  • Voluntary, partnership program that works directly with industries and other partners to integrate health and environmental considerations in business decisions


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  • New approaches to risk reduction through pollution prevention

    • Balancing business needs and environmental concerns

    • Encourages front-end innovations through the redesign of formulations and manufacturing and disposal processes


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Sustainable Development


Design for the Environment

Pollution Prevention

Integrated Product Development

Environmental Stewardship

Total QualityManagement


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Scope of DfE

  • Occupational health and safety

  • Consumer health and safety

  • Ecological integrity and resource protection

  • Pollution prevention and toxic use reduction

  • Transportability (safety and energy use)

  • Waste reduction and minimization

  • Disassembly and disposability

  • Recycle-able and remanufacture-able


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Cooperative Industry Projects

  • Premise: companies do not want to pollute, but often lack information

  • Information needed

    • Environmental impacts and consequences

  • Trade one product or process for another

  • Aim to provide current information needed to practice DfE

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EPA DfE Cooperative Industry Projects

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Entire industry sector

Industry leaders

Trade associations


Printed Wiring Board

Computer Display

Garment and Textile Care

Industrial/Institutional Cleaning Formulations

Auto Refinishing

Adhesives in Foam Furniture and Sleep Products

Supplier Initiative

EPA DfE Partnerships


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Printing Projects

  • 1992 Printing Industries of America approached DfE

  • Screen printing

    • Evaluated 18 screen reclamation technologies

  • Lithography

    • Assessed 40 blanket wash formulations

  • Flexography

    • Comparing solvent, water, and ultraviolet ink technologies


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Flexography Project

  • Printing from a raised image on a printing plate made from rubber or photopolymers

  • Printing on paper, corrugated paperboard, or plastic consumer packages and labels

  • Inks – highly fluid and quick drying

    • Contain solvents or water

    • Selection = performance requirements

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Traditionally solvents from VOCs

Regulated air pollutants

Alternatives to conventional ink formulations



Hazardous materials


DfE seeks to provide info:

Technical and environmental advantages and disadvantages

Implementation Studies – research and applied


Flexography Project, continued

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Garment and Textile Care Program

  • Following a 1992 roundtable on drycleaning, industry leaders paired with DfE

  • Technical studies

    • Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA)

  • Implementation

    • Demonstration shops; Training

  • Outreach

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DfE as Corporate Environmental Policy

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DfE Guidelines

  • Design for:

    • recovery and reuse

    • disassembly

    • waste minimization

    • energy conservation

    • material conservation

    • chronic risk reduction

    • accident prevention

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Driving Forces

Customer Satisfaction

International Standards

Regulatory Constraints

Design for Environment

Competitive Pressures

Product Stewardship

Enterprise Integration

Risk Management

Sustainable Development

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DfE at Xerox

  • Waste-free products and factories

    • Minimize waste to landfill and releases to the environment at every step of a product life cycle

  • 1993 – began training design engineers in DFE principles

    • Objective to incorporate into new and existing products

  • Copy cartridges  new copiers, printers, and multifunction products


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Develop and environmental plan for each product

Environmental impacts

Product life cycle costs

Limit production materials


Recycled thermoplastics and metals

Recycling symbols



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Design for Reuse

  • 1995 – Mark engineering drawings with remanufacturing codes

  • Snap-together designs

    • Facilitate assembly and disassembly processes

  • Copy cartridges

  • Asset Recovery Center

    • One million parts in 1993


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Decrease waste 90%

Air emissions -90%

Water discharges -90%

Post-consumer +25%

Energy efficiency +10%

Recycled >75%

Air emissions -75%

 Use of recycled materials

Goals (1998); Results (1994)


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DfE at Lucent

  • Part of Corporate Environmental Strategy

    • “Committed to ‘design for the environment’”

  • Established cross-functional DfE team

  • Product Lifecycle Team

  • Integrated into product realization process

    • Aims to develop and apply DfE criteria for all operating units by 2000


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Equipment reuse and refurbishment

Repair and refurbishment of business telephones

Battery-return program


Material Reclamation Center

Lucent Program Highlights

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Conclusions & Discussion

  • Public awareness – is this necessary?

  • Fully integrated to environmental management practices?

  • What about small companies?

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Additional Information

  • EPA DfE Homepage


  • Design for Environment: Creating Eco-Efficient Products and Processes, Joseph Fiksel, editor