Design for Environment Adeel Baig Eric Wilson
Chapter Objectives Introduce the environmental issues in electronics Describe how electronics production affects the environment and introduce the current technologies being proposed Describe the importance of design which takes into account the entire life cycle of the product Describe the future prospects of electronics Microsystems Packaging
21.1 What are the Environmental Concerns of Microsystems? • Global warming • Depletion of natural resources • Ozone hole • Acid rain • Pollution of soil, subterranean sea, atmosphere and ecology • Decreasing number of rain forests • Increasing desert area • Decreasing species of wild animals • Transfer of harmful industrial waste from advanced nations to developing nations Microsystems Packaging
21.1.1 Global Warming • Refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. • Caused by gases which mostly come from human activities such as burning fossil fuels to produce energy. • Will result in • 1 billion people being submerged • Grain and food crisis • Abnormal weather
21.1.1 Depletion of Natural Resources • Most minerals will be depleted within the next 100 years
21.1.1 Transfer of Harmful Industrial Waste from Advanced Nations to Developing Nations • Advanced industrial nations have strict regulations and high costs for the disposal of industrial waste. • Consequently, harmful waste is transferred to where the disposal costs are low. • Lenient laws and economic constraints can result in the waste being left undisposed resulting in severe environmental damage.
21.1.1 Transfer of Harmful Industrial Waste from Advanced Nations to Developing Nations
21.1.1 Transfer of Harmful Industrial Waste from Advanced Nations to Developing Nations Basel Treaty adopted in 1989
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(ROHS) • Adopted in February 2003 by the EU. • The RoHS directive took effect on July 1, 2006 is enforced in each member state. • Restricts the use of the following six materials: • Lead • Mercury • Cadmium • Hexavalent Chromium • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) • Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(ROHS) • The maximum concentrations are 0.1% or 1000 ppm (except for cadmium, which is limited to 0.01% or 100 ppm) by weight of homogeneous material. • Everything that can be identified as a homogeneous material must meet the limit.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(ROHS) • China • Initially, products that fall under the covered scope must provide markings and disclosure as to the presence of certain substances, while the substances themselves are not (yet) prohibited. • Japan • No direct legislation dealing with the RoHS substances, but its recycling laws have spurred Japanese manufacturers to move to a lead-free process in accordance with RoHS guidelines. • USA • Federal RoHS-like regulation in the US is unlikely in the near to medium term.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(ROHS) • The directive applies to equipment as defined by a section of the WEEE directive. The following numeric categories apply: • Large and small household appliances. • IT equipment. • Telecommunications equipment (although infrastructure equipment is exempt in some countries) • Consumer equipment. • Lighting equipment—including light bulbs. • Electronic and electrical tools. • Toys, leisure, and sports equipment. • Medical devices (currently exempt) • Monitoring and control instruments (currently exempt) • Automatic dispensers.
Effect of ROHS on Reliability • Lead-free solder • Significantly harder, increasing the likelihood of cracks instead of deformation, which is typical for lead-containing solders. • Warping or delamination of printed circuit boards; • Damage to through-holes, ICs and components on circuit boards; and, • Added moisture sensitivity, all of which may compromise quality and reliability.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive • Became European law in February 2003. • Sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods. • Responsibility for the disposal of WEEE on the manufacturers of such equipment. • Consumers should have the possibility of returning WEEE free of charge • Manufacturers must collect waste in an ecologically friendly manner
Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive(ROHS) • Under the domestic laws of the countries members of the EU, companies that sell non-compliant devices may be subject to civil and criminal fines and penalties. In addition, non-compliant products may be impounded. • On December 4th of 2001, CNN reported on the Netherlands government seizure of 1.3 million Sony Playstation game machines. • The government blocked sales of the console and accessories and the estimated value of the items seized was $162 million. • The reason: Cadmium in some of the cables.
XRF Guns Used to detect restricted substances
Effect on Businesses • Many small businesses are closed down due to the high cost of compliance • Many different laws throughout the world and increasing pressure from NGOs • Requirements imposed by businesses are stricter than those required by ROHS and other laws. • Current Solution • IPC 1752-2 form to collect data at the homogeneous level
Risky Substances Used but not in Final Products • Solvents used in PWB manufacturing • Flux cleaning chemicals • Etching chemicals for copper traces • Waste water • Volatile organic compounds
Problems arising from these chemicals • Poisons to humans • Ozone destruction • Bad odor • Global warming • Acid rain • Fewer polar bears
How to Reduce Toxic Solvents • Solvent turns into a hardener • 100% consumed by resin • All processes are continuous • Created by Japanese • Direct melting with no added solvents • Melt the epoxy resin to directly impregnate glass cloth • Some companies are doing this • Solvent free epoxy resin • Developed by academia • Lignin based
21.2.3 Environmental Effects from the Disposal of Used Electronic Products • Cable Sets • EC – halogenated plastics, surface treatment chemicals • R – special cable recycling facility • Printed Board Assemblies (PBA) • EC – brominated flame retardants and lead, large percentage of total products • R – Very difficult because of the variety of materials, but large interest because of the amount of metal
EEFTDOUEP Continued • Special Treatment Parts • EC – Aren’t suitable for normal waste • R – Batteries recycled, computer memories reused (???) • Product Structures and Housing • EC – Halogenated materials and chromium (IV) • R – Good for metals, poor for plastics The future of recycling – much larger volume and shredding of products into material types
21.3 Life-Cycle Analysis • Method for estimating environmental impact • 4 parts • Establishment of objectives and scope of the analysis • Compilation of life-cycle data • Estimation of the environmental impact • Recommendation of what can be improved
Entire Life-Cycle of an Electronic Product • Raw material • Components for assembly • Energy and water • Emissions into air • Emissions into water • Waste materials for recycling or landfill • Actual product • Transport • Use of product • Scrapping and recycling
LCA Study Example: Cell Phones • 90% from energy usage • Higher standby consumption • Manufacturing costs about the same
Ecologically-acceptable materials Clean process with low energy consumption Least amount of energy consumption Least amount of material usage Least amount of packaging material Good performance Easy disposal Design for easy disassembly High recycling ratio High efficiency of office-related activities 21.3.3 Design for Environment
3 main effects Due to energy production From chemicals used in making microsystems From the disposal of used electronic products Needs A good electronics recycling system Reduced energy needs/usage Efficient use of resources 21.4 Summary and Future Trends