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  1. Adaptive Data Hiding in Edge Areas of Images with Spatial LSB Domain Systems Source: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 488-497, Sep. 2008. Authors: Cheng-Hsing Yang, Chi-Yao Weng, Shiuh-Jeng Wang, and Hung-Min Sun Speaker: Chia-Chun Wu (吳佳駿) Date: 2008/09/04

  2. Outline • Introduction • Related works • The proposed method • Experimental results • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Fixed Data Hiding Secret data: 0 1 1 … 1 P1, P2, P3, …, Pn P1, P2, P3, …, Pn 10011110 Cover image Stego-image • Adaptive Data Hiding Secret data: 0 10 111 … 1010 P1, P2, P3, …, Pn P1, P2, P3, …, Pn Cover image Stego-image 10011110 10011111

  4. 23 di ' 48 55 40(+8) 63(-8) Wu et al.’s PVD and LSB replacement method 000 111 40 63 Pi ' Pi+1' 47 56 Pi Pi+1 9 00101000 00111111 di 00110000 00110111 Lower-level: 3LSB Higher-level: PVD 48 55 7 Pi ' Pi+1' di ' [18] H. C. Wu, N. I. Wu, C. S. Tsai, and M. S. Hwang, “Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Vis. Images signal Process., vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 611-615, 2005.

  5. The proposed method (1/5) 47 56 9 Pi Pi+1 di |R1| = 16, |R2|=16, |R3|=224 4-4-7 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

  6. 64 63 76 48(+24) 79(-24) MSE=10 64 79 12 MSE=394 48 63 15 MSE=170 64 63 1 Pi+1' Pi ' di ' The proposed method (2/5) • Case 1 63 76 13 48 79 31 Pi Pi+1 di Pi ' Pi+1' di ' 00001111 00111111 01001100 00110000 01001111 4-4-7 Min(10, 394, 170) = 10

  7. 63(-24) 48 80 79 47 64(+24) MSE=226 47 64 17 MSE=226 63 80 17 MSE=2 X 47 80 33 Pi+1' Pi ' di ' The proposed method (3/5) • Case 2 48 79 31 63 64 1 Pi Pi+1 di Pi ' Pi+1' di ' 11110000 00110000 01001111 00111111 01000000 4-4-7 Min(226, 226) = 226 di =33 > 31

  8. 48(+24) 51 82 67 64 83(-24) MSE=170 64 83 19 MSE=234 48 67 19 MSE=394 X 64 67 3 Pi+1' Pi ' di ' The proposed method (4/5) • Case 3 51 82 31 48 83 35 Pi Pi+1 di Pi ' Pi+1' di ' 00000011 00110011 01010010 00110000 01010011 4-4-7 Min(170, 234) = 170 di =3 < 16

  9. 63(-27) 83 207 48 79(+27) 63 207 144 Pi+1' Pi ' di ' The proposed method (5/5) • Case 4 48 83 35 63 79 16 Pi Pi+1 di Pi ' Pi+1' di ' 0111111 1001111 00110000 01010011 00111111 01001111 4-4-7 63 - 27 = -1 < 0

  10. Experimental results (1/3) Capacity: 883196 bits PSNR: 33.52 dB Capacity: 916010 bits PSNR: 33.01 dB Capacity: 816956 bits PSNR: 37.82 dB Capacity: 874642 bits PSNR: 34.84 dB Lower-level Higher-level Lower-level Middle-level Higher-level 3-4 3-4-5 R1=[0, 7] R2=[8, 255] R1=[0, 15] R2=[16, 47] R3=[48, 255]

  11. Experimental results (2/3)

  12. Experimental results (3/3)

  13. Conclusion • The proposed method majors in more significant promotion in the term of adaptability, capacity, and imperceptivity.