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Adaptive Domain. ECE 420 / ECE 520 Fall 2012. What is adaptive domain?. The adaptive domain is sometimes also referred to as the self-help domain. During this time period children learn activities that help them ‘adapt’ to their environment.

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adaptive domain

Adaptive Domain

ECE 420 / ECE 520

Fall 2012

what is adaptive domain
What is adaptive domain?
  • The adaptive domain is sometimes also referred to as the self-help domain.
  • During this time period children learn activities that help them ‘adapt’ to their environment.
  • From birth to three years of age children learn skills associated with feeding, dressing, toileting, and drinking independently.
part 1
Part 1:

TYPICAL & ATYPICAL ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

typical adaptive behavior
TYPICAL ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

3 months

6 months

At six months, once they have passed the 0 – 3 month phase, babies will start interacting more with their environment. They will follow moving objects, turn towards the source of sounds and reach for desired objects. Infants between three and six months old can play with their toes, help hold the bottle during feedings, recognize familiar faces, and even babble.

  • By three months, infants are consumed by adaptive skills. At this age, babies should be able to turn their heads, move both eyes in the same direction, recognize the bottle/breast, react to sudden sounds and make cooing noises. Within this time, the infants start to grasp toys, hold fisted hands, kick arms/legs, lift their heads while on their stomachs, and smile.
typical adaptive behavior1
TYPICAL ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

9 months

1 year

A one year old child has grown into pulling, pushing, and dumping things. During this time, they should be reaching milestones such as: walking, feeding themselves, and assisting in getting themselves dressed/undressed. By 12 months, children like to look at pictures, use crayons, and can follow simple directions (e.g. come here).

  • By nine months of age, babies become more physically active. They can sit without support, crawl and pull themselves to a standing position. Furthermore, babies at this age are able to drink from a cup, play interactive games (e.g. peek-a-boo), wave hi/bye, stack two blocks, and know approximately 5 words (e.g.. look at mom when someone says ‘momma’; retrieve a bottle when requested).
typical adaptive behavior2
TYPICAL ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

2 years

3 years

By three years old, children are completely independent. They are able to walk up/down steps, put on their own shoes, use three-to-five word sentences, and are fully toilet trained. Three year olds can play with other children, name at least one color correctly, and ride a tricycle. Though exact times for reaching these milestones can vary slightly among children, these are good guidelines for tracking your child’s developmental progress.

  • At two years old, toddlers are assertive. They become increasingly more verbal using two word sentences, labeling common objects, and using verbal requests (e.g. more juice).They can identify body parts, build larger block towers, turn pages in a book, and show affection. They also like to imitate the adults/peers around them. Two year-olds can be extremely determined to have things their way, thus making temper tantrums a very common occurrence.
more typical behavior
MORE TYPICAL BEHAVIOR
  • By one:
    • feeds self cracker
    • holds cup with two hands; drinks with assistance
    • holds out arms and legs while being dressed
  • Between ages one and two:
    • uses spoon, spilling little
    • drinks form cup with one hand, unassisted
    • chews food
    • unzips large zipper
    • indicates toilet needs
    • removes shoes, socks, pants, sweater
  • Skills developing between the ages of 2 and 3 years
    • cooperates with dressing
    • removes loose clothing
    • puts on/pulls up simple clothing
    • begins to indicate toileting needs
    • attempts to wash and dry hands
    • uses spoon, little spilling
    • gets drink form fountain or faucet independently
    • opens door by turning handle
    • takes off coat
    • puts on coat with assistance
more typical behavior1
MORE TYPICAL BEHAVIOR
  • Skills developing between the ages of 3 and 4 years
    • completely undresses self
    • independently puts on socks, coat, sweater, pants manipulates large buttons and snaps
    • eats entire meal independently
    • uses a spoon and fork effectively
    • can pour liquid with some assistance
    • washes hands unassisted
    • learns toilet training
    • wipes nose unassisted (may need a reminder!)
    • spreads soft butter with knife
    • buttons and unbuttons large buttons
    • blows nose when reminded
    • uses toilet independently
  • Skills developing between the ages of 4 and 5 years
    • dresses and undresses without assistance
    • uses all feeding utensils
    • cares for own toileting needs
    • Cuts easy foods with a knife
    • laces shoes
  • Between ages five and six:
    • dresses self completely
    • ties bow
    • brushes teeth independently
part 2
Part 2:

Established Conditions

developmental delays
Developmental Delays
  • States may convey developmental delays in adaptive behavior as a age-inappropriate behavior.
  • States can use a 12-month/percentage delays for milestones like, a child can tie their shoes or they are potty-trained.
  • Although there are other states that may use measures based on standard deviations. However these standards are often inappropriate in this area of developmental delays.
  • The most appropriate indicators are those that look to behavior as it relates to specific situations or milestones.
established conditions
Established Conditions
  • There is no established condition to the domain of adaptive behavior.
  • For example cerebral palsy has it’s own affects on physical development.
  • Our text book discusses several additional conditions that appear to relate more closely to adaptive than to the other four domains of development.
fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
  • Is associated with the developmental effects caused by maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy.
  • Olson (1994) suggests that the syndrome includes three kind s of symptoms: facial abnormalities, growth problems, and neurological impairments.
  • Many infants with fetal alcohol syndrome are premature, with low birth rates.
  • 1st set of characteristics is facial including:
    • Small head
    • Underdeveloped eyes that appear “too far apart”
    • Ears are unusually low
    • Thin, long, or smooth upper lip
fetal alcohol syndrome cont
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Cont…
  • Secondly fetal alcohol syndrome can also effect a child physically by :
    • Stunted growth
    • Limited in walking
    • Heart defects are common
    • Have difficult sleeping
  • Neurological Conditions:
    • Mental disabilities
    • Hyperactivity
    • Speech impairments
  • FAS is major cause of Mental retardation (MR) or intellectual disability (ID) is a descriptive term for sub-average intelligence and impaired adaptive functioning arising in the developmental period (less than 18 yr old).
fetal alcohol syndrome cont1
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Cont…
  • There are distinct differences between a healthy infants brain and an infant with FAS.
    • Infants with FAS have crevices in their brains that are notably smoother than normal.
    • Some of these infants have seizures.

Adaptive Development:

    • Prominent problem in children with FAS, is learning cause and effect situations.
    • These children need to learn safety rules repetitively.
    • They need to understand the reasons behind the rules of social behavior.
vulnerable child syndrome
Vulnerable Child Syndrome
  • Vulnerable Child Syndrome:
  • Are children who are exposed prenatally to cocaine, heroin, and other controlled substances.
  • When cocaine became a widespread drug in the United States in 1985, neonatal intensive care unit intervention specialists and child care workers noticed effects in infants and toddlers born of cocaine-abusing mothers.
      • Their first reports were very alarming and concluded a variety of symptoms.
  • Although, later research established that the quality of the environment for these infants may contribute much more to their problems than the mother’s substance abuse during pregnancy.
      • A mother who is addicted to illegal drugs can be preoccupied with supporting their drug habits that they do not provide the infant with adequate nutrients, a safe and clean home environment, and are not making time to promote intellectual and sensory stimulation throughout the day.
slide17
AIDS
  • AIDS:
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome, is a condition in which the body’s immune system fails. This syndrome is believed to be caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Detecting the disease in infants and very young children is difficult because young children may be carriers of the mother’s transferred antibodies, making the test positive for the virus until 13-18 months.
    • The child may be carrying the maternal antibodies, but that does not mean that they themselves are infected.
    • Only a small minority of infants born to HIV-positive mothers will develop AIDS.
    • 1/3 of infants born to HIV-positive mothers are infected.
  • Mothers who are infected, can take the drug AZT during pregnancy, which can dramatically cut the risk of transmitting the disease to her fetus.
aids cont
AIDS Cont…

Initial symptoms for a child who has AIDS:

  • Respiratory and other infections
  • Failure to thrive
  • Delays in linear growth
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • 1st step for ECSE program staff, volunteers, and educators, is to essentially educate themselves about the disease, how it can be transmitted, and how it affects not only child development but also the mother-child relationship.
  • Staff and volunteers may be told that one or more children in a program have tested positive for the virus, without identifying which child.
  • The standard procedure for handling cuts and other instances in which blood is spilled should be followed even if no child in the program is known to have the virus (wearing gloves whenever blood is present).
epilepsy
Epilepsy
  • Epilepsy:
  • A condition producing irregular electric discharges in the brain.
    • There are many kinds of epilepsy, in which many are caused by head injuries and some are much serious than others.
  • Seizures may cause a child to break the rules of social behavior during story time or quiet time, which may also interfere with learning.
    • The Epilepsy Foundation of America estimates that 7 million Americans of all ages have epilepsy.
    • Epilepsy occurs at a rate among infants of one per thousand.
    • A single seizure does not mean a child has epilepsy, it is characterized as recurrent-unprovoked seizures.
epilepsy cont
Epilepsy Cont…
  • Epilepsy ranges from tonic-clonic seizures where electrical storms in the brain trigger loss of consciousness.
  • Where absence seizures that look more like blinking or daydreaming and last for seconds.
    • From this range of symptoms, epilepsy is not one condition but, rather, a variety of disorders.
    • Common causes of epilepsy are blows to the head (from automobile accidents) or from heredity.
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, affects 20,000 children in the United States. It causes massive-repeated seizures, a child can have as many as 100-200 per hour and, if not treated, usually leads to mental retardation.
    • 85% of seizures can now be controlled and treated with medication.
    • However they have the side effects: fatigue, nausea, and weight gain.
autism spectrum disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Many parents believe that autism is caused by many vaccines and childhood immunizations.
  • Parents point to this fact stating that the symptoms of autism frequently appear at about the time of vaccinations (2-3 yrs old).
    • However medical experts are now detecting symptoms much earlier in life.
  • Autism has three dimensions:
              • Impairments in communication
              • Imagination
              • Socialization
  • Parents first sign of something is wrong is when they notice their child having delays in language and speech. Also signs of muteness or echolalia (meaningless repetition).
    • However many children at 3 yrs old mimic and show echolalic-like speech.
    • Echolalia is a key symptom of autism spectrum disorders.
  • The most leading characteristic of autism spectrum disorders is not speech and language delay, but an “autistic aloneness”.
      • Meaning there is an aversion/dislike of the eyes and the child lacks in responsiveness to others.
      • Meaning the child does not seem to understand what is said to them, does not look up when called, seems to “look through” people.
part 3
PART 3:

EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CLASSROOM USE

clarification
CLARIFICATION
  • Toddlers 2-3 years
  • Preschool 3-4 years
  • Kindergarten 4-5 years
toddlers 2 3 years
TODDLERS 2-3 YEARS
  • Provide a variety of cooking utensils and dinnerware-Practice holding and eating with a spoon.
  • Practice washing and drying hands after snack(needs assistance).
  • Provide costumes for dramatic play- let students put on(needs assistance) and take off by themselves.
  • Provide dolls and toys to care for the dolls (dressing, feeding with spoons or bottles)
preschool 3 4 years
PRESCHOOL 3-4 YEARS
  • Make independent transitions within the classroom and school
    • Walk from the classroom to the playground without holding the teachers hand.
  • Manage personal possessions and classroom materials appropriately
    • Hanging up coat and backpack in cubby.
  • Provide clothing with zippers, large buttons, and belt buckles for play.
kindergarten 4 5 years
KINDERGARTEN 4-5 YEARS
  • Provide simple cooking experiences and activities
    • Making pudding, gelatin, butter
    • Spreading soft substances on bread or crackers with a knife.
  • Provide water play with small pitchers, glasses.
strategies for all teachers
STRATEGIES FOR ALL TEACHERS
  • Incorporate independence skills within classroom routines – brushing teeth, practice tying bows
  • Teach children the steps needed to complete classroom jobs and routines such as putting materials away, cleaning up block area, getting ready for snack. Support with picture charts, if necessary.
  • Include children in meal preparation, setting the table, and clean-up
strategies for all teachers cont
STRATEGIES FOR ALL TEACHERS CONT…
  • Place pictures next to toilet or sinks to illustrate steps for toileting or washing hands.
  • Provide writing or drawing utensils(pencils, crayons, paint brushes, chalk) of different sizes.
  • Assure the equipment and materials in the classroom are child-sized – toilets, sinks, chairs, tables.
part 4
Part 4:

Working with Families

working with families
Working with Families
  • Gaining self-help independence for the special needs child involves:
    • Parents and other family members working closely with ECSE workers
    • ECSE staff impresses upon the family the critical role of adaptive behavior
working with families1
Working with Families
  • Shortcoming Associated with Parenting a Special Needs Child:
    • Parent(s) and/or family members make excuses for why the child is not learning self-help skills
    • Parent(s) and/or family members over do for the child
working with families2
Working with Families
  • Things parents should be aware of with their special needs child:
    • The adult role concerning self-help should be restricted
    • Limit their assistance to what is necessary
    • Only aiding when it is unavoidable
working with families3
Working with Families
  • Parents and ECSE workers need to remember and keep in mind:
    • Children are innately driven to perform self-care
    • Independence is gained with mastering self help skills
working with families4
Working with Families
  • Parents of a special needs child may feel inadequate:
    • While being trained by professionals to care for their own child
    • Family members feel incapable of caring for their own child
    • ECSE workers need to be mindful of showing respect and act in partnership with these families
working with families5
Working with Families
  • Occupational Therapist work with children and their families to build strengths and to reduce difficulties in day-to-day activities
  • OT develops strategies in partnership with the family to enable the child to develop life skills
  • OT may advise families about the way a family activity should happen in the best interest of the child
outside resources
OUTSIDE RESOURCES
  • Technical Assistance and Training Update
    • http://www.tats.ucf.edu/docs/eUpdates/Curriculum-14.pdf
  • Bucks County Intermediate School District
    • http://www3.bucksiu.org/page/1184#Adaptive
  • Multilingual Development Agency
    • http://www.multilingualdevelopment.net/2007/04/20/developmental-milestones-for-children-ages-birth-to-three-years-old/
  • LD Online
    • http://www.ldonline.org/article/6039/
  • Medscape Reference
    • http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1180709-overview
  • Google Images
  • Bowe, F. 2008. Early Childhood Special Education Birth to Eight. Delmar Cengage Learning. (pg. 385-403).
  • Bourke-Taylor, H. (2011). Occupational therapy and young children with autism. Autism consultation and training now, (56), 1-4. Retrieved from www.med.monash.edu.au/spppm/research/devpsych/actnow