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Middle Class es

Middle Class es

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Middle Class es

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  1. Middle Classes “The Bourgeoisie Century”

  2. Development of the Middle Class • Bourgeoisie • as strong a sense of self-identity as did anyone • Post-Napoleonic era • Aristocracy • Hereditary – ascribed status • Buy-in

  3. Middle Class…es • Middle Classes • Not homogeneous • Shared cultural values and symbols • Reactionary when challenged • Journal des De’bat, 1847: “The Bourgeoisie is not a class, it is a position. One acquires that position and loses it. Work, thrift, and ability confer it, vice, dissipation, and idleness mean it can be lost.”

  4. Middle Classes • Aristocrats • idleness • Effects of the French Revolution • Removal of legal blocks to advancement • Extrinsic motivation for advancement (Napoleon) • “Endless work to get ahead” ethos • “In muck there’s brass” • Increasingly a lifestyle to be emulated and maintained.

  5. Middle Classes • Frederick Engels • "One day I walked with one of these middle class gentlemen into Manchester. I spoke to him about the disgraceful, unhealthy slums and drew his attention to the disgusting condition of that part of town in which the factory workers lived. I declared that I'd never seen so badly built a town in my life. He listened patiently and at the end of the corner of a street at which we parted, he remarked, ‘And yet, there is a good deal of money to be made here. Good morning, sir. And he walked away."

  6. Middle Classes • 1830’s: • Workers "should be constantly harassed by need, for then he will not set his children a bad example and his poverty will be the guarantee of good behavior."

  7. Middle Classes • Formation of voluntary associations • Helping the poor • Moralizing on habits of the poor • SPCA- • “One must love animals, but not fraternize with animals.” • Bull fights • Church-going • Much greater % of the “Middle Classes”

  8. Middle Classes • Census- Who is “Middle Class?” • Wills • Britain- approaching 25% • Paris 17 – 19% • Northern Italy, Hanseatic cities, Madrid, Barcelona, • Russia- Moscow & St Petersburg; ~ 2%

  9. Middle Classes • Who is “Middle Class?” • “Great Bourgeoisie” • Financiers (Bankers) • Wholesale Merchants, Shipping magnates- • Political power • Industrialists • Merchants • Lawyers • Doctors • Petit Bourgeoisie • (Petty Bourgeoisie) *******************ECONOMY***********************

  10. Middle Classes • What do they want? • Social mobility • Vote- political power • Education for their children • Credit • Privacy • The right to bear arms • “The Children’s Hour” • Birth control • How is this measured?

  11. Middle Classes • IN CONCLUSION- • The Middle classes vary extremely • Common material culture • Competitive • They want the vote • They can become unified quickly