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Middle Class es. “The Bourgeoisie Century” . Development of the Middle Class. Bourgeoisie as strong a sense of self-identity as did anyone Post-Napoleonic era Aristocracy Hereditary – ascribed status Buy-in. Middle Class… es. Middle Classes Not homogeneous

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middle class es

Middle Classes

“The Bourgeoisie Century”

development of the middle class
Development of the Middle Class
  • Bourgeoisie
    • as strong a sense of self-identity as did anyone
    • Post-Napoleonic era
  • Aristocracy
    • Hereditary – ascribed status
    • Buy-in
middle class es1
Middle Class…es
  • Middle Classes
    • Not homogeneous
    • Shared cultural values and symbols
    • Reactionary when challenged
    • Journal des De’bat, 1847: “The Bourgeoisie is not a class, it is a position. One acquires that position and loses it. Work, thrift, and ability confer it, vice, dissipation, and idleness mean it can be lost.”
middle classes
Middle Classes
  • Aristocrats
    • idleness
  • Effects of the French Revolution
    • Removal of legal blocks to advancement
    • Extrinsic motivation for advancement (Napoleon)
    • “Endless work to get ahead” ethos
    • “In muck there’s brass”
    • Increasingly a lifestyle to be emulated and maintained.
middle classes1
Middle Classes
  • Frederick Engels
  • "One day I walked with one of these middle class gentlemen into Manchester. I spoke to him about the disgraceful, unhealthy slums and drew his attention to the disgusting condition of that part of town in which the factory workers lived. I declared that I'd never seen so badly built a town in my life. He listened patiently and at the end of the corner of a street at which we parted, he remarked, ‘And yet, there is a good deal of money to be made here. Good morning, sir. And he walked away."
middle classes2
Middle Classes
  • 1830’s:
    • Workers "should be constantly harassed by need, for then he will not set his children a bad example and his poverty will be the guarantee of good behavior."
middle classes3
Middle Classes
  • Formation of voluntary associations
    • Helping the poor
    • Moralizing on habits of the poor
    • SPCA-
      • “One must love animals, but not fraternize with animals.”
      • Bull fights
  • Church-going
    • Much greater % of the “Middle Classes”
middle classes4
Middle Classes
  • Census- Who is “Middle Class?”
    • Wills
      • Britain- approaching 25%
      • Paris 17 – 19%
      • Northern Italy, Hanseatic cities, Madrid, Barcelona,
      • Russia- Moscow & St Petersburg; ~ 2%
middle classes5
Middle Classes
  • Who is “Middle Class?”
    • “Great Bourgeoisie”
      • Financiers (Bankers)
      • Wholesale Merchants, Shipping magnates-
        • Political power
    • Industrialists
    • Merchants
    • Lawyers
    • Doctors
    • Petit Bourgeoisie
      • (Petty Bourgeoisie)


middle classes6
Middle Classes
  • What do they want?
    • Social mobility
    • Vote- political power
    • Education for their children
    • Credit
    • Privacy
    • The right to bear arms
    • “The Children’s Hour”
    • Birth control
  • How is this measured?
middle classes7
Middle Classes
    • The Middle classes vary extremely
      • Common material culture
      • Competitive
      • They want the vote
      • They can become unified quickly