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The Basics of the United States Military

The Basics of the United States Military

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The Basics of the United States Military

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  1. The Basics of the United States Military

  2. 5 Military Branches • Army • Navy • Marines • Air Force • Coast Guard

  3. The functions of the different branches • Army - responsible for land-based Militaryoperations. • largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military • its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on 14 June 1775 • before establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War • Congress created the United States Army on 14 June 1784 after the end of the war to replace the disbanded Continental Army

  4. Army (cont.) • primary mission of the Army – • is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities ... in support of the National Security and Defense Strategies” 1 • Department of the Army administers control and operation • Civilian leader is Secretary of the Army • Highest ranking military officer is the Chief of Staff, unless Chairman/Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers • The Regular Army reported a strength of 539,675 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) reported 360,351 and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) reported 197,024 putting the combined component strength total 1,097,050 soldiers (2008 Financial Year). 2008 Statistics 1 - 2005 Posture Statement. U.S. Army, February 6, 2005

  5. Army Mission • §3062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the Army as:2 2 - DA Pamphlet 10-1 Organization of the United States Army; Figure 1.2Military Operations.

  6. • Navy – is the sea branch of the U. S. Armed Forces • Origins traced back to Continental Navy • The United States Constitution provided the legal basis for a seaborne military force by giving Congress the power "to provide and maintain a navy". • Barbary Coast pirates in the Mediterranean Sea enabled Congress to pass the Naval Act of 1794, ordering the construction and manning of six frigates.

  7. Navy (cont.) • Administered by Department of the Navy • Civilian leader is the Secretary of the Navy • Navy is a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense • Highest ranking Naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations • As of December 2008, the U.S. Navy had about 331,682 personnel on active duty and 124,000 in the Navy Reserve. It operates 283 ships in active service and more than 3,700 aircraft • U.S. Navy is largest in the world. • World’s largest carrier group (11 in service +1)

  8. Navy Mission • The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. • —Mission statement of the United States Navy • Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: • "The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war" • "The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations and all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy" • "The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements". • U.S. Navy training manuals state the mission of the U.S armed forces is "to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest". As part of that establishment, the U.S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties (10 U.S.C. § 5062)

  9. • Marines - for providing force projection from the sea,using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces • Component of the Department of the Navy • Formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas, two battalions of Continental Marines, on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as naval infantry • Has served in every armed conflict • Because most known for amphibious warfare. • formed the cornerstone of the Pacific campaign of World War II

  10. Marines (cont.) • Marine Corps includes 203,557 (as of June 30, 2009) active duty Marinesand just under 40,000 reserve Marines • It is the smallest of the United States' armed forces in the Department of Defense (but still larger than entire British Army. • Commandant of the Marine Corp is General James T. Conway (

  11. Marines Mission • As outlined in 10 U.S.C. § 5063 and as originally introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, has three primary areas of responsibility: • "The seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns; • The development of tactics, technique, and equipment used by amphibious landing forces; and • Such other duties as the President may direct."

  12. • Air Force - is the aerial warfare branch of the U.S. armed forces • Initially part of the U.S. Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on 18 September 1947 • largest and most technologically advanced Air Force in the world • 5,573 manned aircraft in service (3,990 USAF; 1,213 Air National Guard; and 370 Air Force Reserve; approximately 180 unmanned combat air vehicles, 2,130 air-launched cruise missiles, and 450 intercontinental ballistic missiles

  13. Air Force (cont.) • 327,452 personnel on active duty, 115,299 in the Selected and Individual Ready Reserves, and 106,700 in the Air National Guard as of Sept. 2008 • The Department of the Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force who oversees all administrative and policy affairs. • The Department of the Air Force is a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. ( • The highest ranking military officer in the Department of the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force.

  14. Air Force Mission • According to the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 502) which created the Air Force: • In general the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned. It shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. • §8062 of Title 10 US Code (10 USC 8062) defines the purpose of the Air Force as: • to preserve the peace and security, and provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories, Commonwealths, and possessions, and any areas occupied by the United States; • to support national policy; • to implement national objectives; • to overcome any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States. • The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly, fight, and win in air, space, and cyberspace".

  15. • Coast Guard – is a military, maritime, multi-mission service within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security dedicated to protecting the safety and security of America. • In addition, the Coast Guard has separate legal authority than the other four armed services. • A federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. • Operates under the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President or Congress during a time of war.

  16. Coast Guard (cont.) • Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790, it lays claim to being the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. • As of October 2006, the Coast Guard had approximately 46,000 men and women on active duty, 8,100 reservists, 7,000 full time civilian employees and 30,000 Auxiliarists • The service has participated in every U.S. conflict from 1790 through today, including landing US troops on D-Day and on the Pacific Islands in World War II

  17. Coast Guard (cont.) • is unique among the military branches in that it has a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction both domestically and in international waters) • best known for search and rescue missions • has law enforcement powers • Highest civilian lead is the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security ( • Highest military leader is Commandant of the United States Coast Guard (

  18. Coast Guard Mission • overall mission of the Coast Guard is to protect the public, the environment, and the United States economic and security interests in any maritime region in which those interests may be at risk, including international waters and United States coasts, ports, and inland waterways. • The Coast Guard motto is "SemperParatus", Latin for "Always Ready" or "Always Prepared".