Seerah. 15. The Conquest of Makkah 8 A.H. T he greatest victory, one by which Allâh honoured His religion. It was the greatest auspicious event in heaven and on earth .
The Conquest of Makkah 8 A.H The greatest victory, one by which Allâh honoured His religion
It was the greatest auspicious event in heaven and on earth. • It was the most significant prelude to a new era that was to witness the great march of Islamization and the entry of people into the fold of Islam in huge hosts. • It provided an ever shining face and a most glowing source of inspiration to the whole earth
According to the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Arab tribes were given the option to join either of the parties, the Muslims or Quraish, with which they desired to enter into treaty alliance. Should any of these tribes suffer aggression, then the party to which it was allied would have the right to retaliate.
Khuzâ`ahh tribe was in the covenant of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS); and Banu Bakr were in the covenant of Quraysh. There was blood between these two tribes, so Banu Bakr attacked Khuzâ`ah. Quraysh assisted Banu Bakr with weapons and men, and fought them. A band of Khuzâ`ah came to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and told him that Qurayshhad revoked the treaty.
When Quraysh felt the fear of attack form Muslims, they sent Abu-Sufyân to reinforce the truce, but Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) did not accept.
When Muslims became sure that Quraysh breeched their convention, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) ordered Muslims to get prepared for the war without telling them of the destination.
Ten thousand Muslims from Al-Muhâjirîn (immigrants), Al-Ansâr (supporters) and some Arab tribes met for the purpose. Then Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) went out with them in the 10th of Ramadan of the 8 A.H. He moved on until they stopped at Mar Adh-Thahran near Makkah.
The Quraishites were quite unaware of the development of affairs, but the Prophet (pbuh) did not like to take them by surprise. He, therefore, ordered his men to kindle fire on all sides for cooking purposes. The idea behind this was that Quraish should be afforded full opportunity to assess the situation in which they were caught, and should not endanger their lives by leaping blindly in the battlefield.
While the Muslims army was in Mar Adh-Dhahrân Abu-Sufyân with two of his men went to spy on Muslims, since they were expecting Muslims' reaction on their revoke of the treaty. However, the Muslims soldiers caught them and Al-`Abbâs ibn `Abdul-Muttalib was the first one to meet him. He took Abu-Sufyân to the Prophet's tent.
The Prophet (SAWS) safeguarded him. Next morning, he embraced Islam and bore witness to the truth. Al-`Abbâs said to the Prophet (SAWS), "Abu-Sufyân is a man who likes bragging, so make something for him." The Prophet (SAWS) said," whoever enters the home of Abu-Sufyân would be safe."
Then Al-`Abbâs was ordered to let Abu-Sufyân stand where the army will march, to enable him from watching the Muslim army. Tribes began to pass in front of him, battalion after battalion, until they finished. In response, Abu-Sufyân hurried to Makkah and shouted, "O' folk of Quraysh, Muhammad came to you verily with an army that you can not resist”.
After that, the Prophet (SAWS) ordered to put his flag on the highest mountain around Makkah, and ordered Khâlîd to enter Makkah with his battalion from the south of Makkah. The Prophet and those with him entered from the north of Makkah, Abu ‘Ubaidah took command of the infantry and was to penetrate into the city via a side valley.
They were given full and decisive orders not to kill anyone unless in self defence and in that case they would exterminate any aggressive elements and defeat any opposition.
Prophet (saw) ordered his herald to announce: • "Whomever enters his house and closes his door would be safe, • whomever enters the mosque would be safe and • whomever enters the house of Abu-Sufyân would be safe".
Yet, the Prophet excluded a group whom he declared their killing lawful, because they inflicted so much harm on Muslims
Khalid bin Al-Waleed worked his way into the heart of the town quite successively killing twelve of the attackers and sustaining two martyrs. • Az-Zubair set out and reached the fixed destination where he planted the banner at Al-Fath Mosque and waited there for the arrival of the Prophet (saw).
Prophet (saw) entered as a conqueror, mounted on his camel with his head bowed until his beard almost touched the saddle, in gratitude to God and rode down towards the Ka’bah with his head lowered in humility to God. A tent was pitched for him where he offered prayers of thanks to the All-Mighty Allâh, Who, out of His immense grace, had granted him a splendid victory.
He, in the company of the Helpers and Emigrants, got up and proceeded towards Al-Ka‘bah, the Sacred House, which is an emblem of the Oneness and Supremacy of Allâh. It was unfortunately infested with idols that numbered 360. He knocked them down with his bow while reciting the verse of the Noble Qur’ân
He ordered that all idols be dismantled, images erased. He then entered the sacred hall to face the wall opposite the door and there again performed devout prostrations, and went around acclaiming Allâh’s Greatness and Oneness.
He returned to the door-way and standing upon its elevated step, gazed in thankfulness on the massive gathering below and delivered the following celebrated address:
"There is no god but Allâh Alone. He has no associates. He made good His Promise that He held to His slave and helped him and defeated all the Confederates along. • Bear in mind that for anyone who is slain, even though semi-deliberately, with club or whip, for him the blood-money is very severe: a hundred camels.
"O people of Quraish! surely Allâh has abolished from you all pride of the pre-Islamic era and all conceit in your ancestry, (because) all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made out of clay."
"O you people of Quraish! What do you think of the treatment that I am about to accord to you?" • They replied: • "O noble brother and son of noble brother! We expect nothing but goodness from you." • Upon this he said: • "I speak to you in the same words as Yusuf (the Prophet Joseph) spoke unto his brothers: He said: "No reproach on you this day," [surah yusuf:92] • go your way, for you are freed ones."
When time for prayer approached, Bilal ascended to the roof of Al-Ka‘bah and called for prayer.
The story of the conversion of Abu Sufyan shows us the tremendous forgiving nature of the Prophet. Instead of calling for his execution, as in accordance with the rules of warfare, he invited him to Islam. • after he accepted Islam, prophet (saw) enticed him into working for the Islamic call by granting him a position of honor by singling out his house as a place for refuge. In this way the Prophet took into consideration his social status and used it in a positive manner.
The manner in which the Prophet entered Makkah, his once beloved home town, shows us the perfect display of humbleness- a balance between humility to God and not belittling oneself in front of the creation of God. • In this way the Prophet was continually seeking to cultivate the spirituality of his followers, be it even on a military campaign.
The Prophet had the heart of a true visionary leader. He did not allow any for personal grudges to dictate his strategy and when he entered Makkah, home to his bitterest enemies who had spared no effort in trying to malign and abuse him, he did so whilst asking God to forgive them and without desiring bloodshed- for the ultimate goal was to guide mankind. Conquering Makkah in this way made the incident that much more monumental and unique.
The Prophet delivered a speech of universal pardon asking Bilal to pronounce the Athan and so he did by climbing on top of the Ka’bah. Such an act clearly demonstrates that Muslims do not believe that the Ka’bah building to be an idol that they prostrate to. Praying in it’s direction is a symbolic act of unity for the Muslim nation symbolizing the essence of Islam- worshiping the One and only God.