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Dr Vojislav Kandi ć IFC Advisory Services in Infrastructure. Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure in the Balkans - Experiences and Lessons Learned -. September 25, 2009. International Finance Corporation 1956. International Development Association 1960

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private sector participation in infrastructure in the balkans experiences and lessons learned

Dr Vojislav Kandić

IFC Advisory Services in Infrastructure

Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure in the Balkans

- Experiences and Lessons Learned -

September 25, 2009

international finance corporation

International Finance



International Development



Provides concessional loans to

governments of the poorest countries.

International Bank for

Reconstruction and Development


Lends to governments of middle income developing countries.

Multilateral Investment

Guarantee Agency


Provides guarantees to foreign investors

against non-commercial risk

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes


Settles investment disputes between foreign investors and host countries.

International Finance Corporation

IFC is a member of the World Bank Group

general benefits of ppps
General Benefits of PPPs

Well structured PPPs provide following general benefits:

  • performance enhancement through higher efficiency;
  • transfer of know-how and management expertise;
  • development of facilities and customer service;
  • easier access to capital;
  • performance-based compensation for the private operator/investor; and
  • concession/tax income for governments
  • It is important to understand that PPP structure should always be tailored to suit the specific economic, political, environmental, social and other conditions, and that it does not necessary have to fit one of the models
ifc s approach to ppps in emerging markets
IFC’s Approach to PPPs in Emerging Markets
  • Combining the commercial realities acquired from its financing activities with the developmental mandate of a multilateral financial institution, IFC has developed a unique approach to advising governments on PPP transactions.
  • Emerging markets are in many ways different from the developed markets and are characterized by a number of specific conditions which requires application of distinctive PPP structures
types of ppps according to risk handling abilities
Types of PPPs according to Risk Handling Abilities

PPP should be structured in a manner which allocates specific risks to the parties which are best positioned to handle them.

    • Technical Assistance
    • Management Contracts
    • Lease Agreements
    • Build-Transfer (BT)
    • Build-Own-Transfer (BOT)
    • Build-Own-Operate (BOO)
    • Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT)
    • Build-Operate-Renewal of concession (BOR)
    • Build-Lease-Transfer (BRT)
    • Rehabilitate-Own-Transfer (ROT)
    • Rehabilitate-Own-Operate (ROO)
    • Divestiture
  • Private capital is at risk, and should be engaged by the party that is best able to attract private capital
  • Commercial Banks as key partners – providing financing and putting discipline in the process
full divestiture often not an option
Full Divestiture – often not an option
  • By minimizing project risk and involvement of the Government, full divestitures generates maximum amount of revenue for government (or minimize subsidies). Some sectors, airports and ports in particular, tend to face less public resistance to full divestiture compared to water, waste, road, and rail sectors, as the latter are considered a “social service” in the emerging countries
ifc advisor sensitive to the specifics of emerging markets
IFC - advisor sensitive to the specifics of emerging markets

Specific forms of PPPs that are often applied in the emerging markets are different form PPP structures typically found in the developed countries:

1) Projects require definition—and sometimes redefinition

2) The advisor has to help the client understand what is realistic

3) Understanding the concerns of the bidders and working with the client to address possible issues

4) It is extremely difficult to pre-negotiate a perfect contract that will fit all possible scenarios

5) Important issues not addressed in the early stages of the tender can have a potentially devastating effect later

The advisor often needs to start with creating a legislative framework that would be conducive to PPPs and reflect best international practice, and help establish a PPP unit/agency


IFC Infrastructure Advisory in the Balkans

  • Ashta Run-on-River Hydro Power Plant, Albania – Verbund, 2008
  • KESH Power Distribution, Albania – CEZ, 2009
  • Bar-Boljare Full Motorway, Montenegro - Konstruktor, 2009
  • Moraca Hydro Cascade Power Plants, Montenegro
ppp challenges for financing in the balkans today
PPP – Challenges for Financing in the Balkans TODAY

“...after living 20 years in the most advanced nations, I have come to the conclusion that civilization consists of having security in regard to life, honor and goods. That, and only that, is what we call civilization...” Juan B. Alberdi,father of the Argentine Constitution of 1853

  • Foreign government as the newest party for direct financing infrastructure projects in the Balkans – through direct bilateral arrangements, no tender process involved
  • Ability of the Government to pay Availability Payments becomes to be questioned
  • PPP Comparator
  • Prices of inputs (materials, energy, labor) and outputs (tariffs and charges), as key for bankability, are changing dramatically
  • International Finance Institutions (IFIs) as new key partners on both public and private side in a PPP
ifc as lead advisor for ppp transactions
IFC as Lead Advisor for PPP Transactions
  • IFC can make a special contribution, as Lead Advisor, for the following reasons:

1. Experience in Sector Transactions

2. Balancing Private and Public Sector Interests

3. Transparency and Investor Confidence

4. Exceptional commitment to the Balkan region – Regional Office in Belgrade

5. Multi-Skilled and Experienced Team

6. Pursuit of sustainable economic and social benefits

7. Synergies within the World Bank Group

8. Ties with the Global Investment Community

9. Willingness to go “the extra mile”