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Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science. Chapter 23 ROCKS AND MINERALS. This lecture will help you understand:. Materials of the Earth Mineral Properties Formation of Minerals How Minerals Are Classified Silicate Minerals Nonsilicate Minerals Igneous Rocks
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ROCKS AND MINERALS
Oxygen and silicon make up 75% of Earth’s crust.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORThe process of chemical differentiation contributed to the formation of
CHECK YOUR ANSWERThe process of chemical differentiation contributed to the formation of
Crystal form—crystal shape—is the outward expression of a mineral’s internal arrangement of atoms.
Hardness is the resistance of a mineral to scratching.
Cleavage is the property of a mineral to break along planes of weakness.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORPhysical properties of a mineral are predominantly related to
CHECK YOUR ANSWERPhysical properties of a mineral are predominantly related to
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORThe color of a mineral is predominantly related to
CHECK YOUR ANSWERThe color of a mineral is predominantly related to
Minerals form by the process of crystallization.
Magma is molten rock, which forms inside Earth.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORIn the crystallization of chemical sediments from a water solution, low-solubility minerals precipitate first, because
CHECK YOUR ANSWERIn the crystallization of chemical sediments from a water solution, low-solubility minerals precipitate first, because
The Silicates are divided into two groups:
All silicate minerals have the same fundamental structure of atoms—the silicate tetrahedron.
Tetrahedra can form as single units or as links with a variety of structural configurations:
Nonsilicate minerals make up about 8% of Earth’s crust.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORThe silicates are the most common and abundant mineral group, because silicon and oxygen are
CHECK YOUR ANSWERThe silicates are the most common and abundant mineral group, because silicon and oxygen are
A rock is a coherent aggregate of minerals—a physical mixture.
Three categories of rock:
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOREven though the temperature at depth is hotter than rock’s melting point, the rocks at depth are solid, because
CHECK YOUR ANSWEREven though the temperature at depth is hotter than rock’s melting point, the rocks at depth are solid, because
The mineral makeup of igneous rock is dependent on the chemical composition of the magma from which it crystallizes.
Rate of cooling determines crystal size:
Spheroidal weathering (rock weathered into rounded shapes) results as rainwater chemically weathers the outer layers of rock. Once weathered, rainwater erodes the rock by washing away the weakened outer layers and leaving rounded boulders behind.
Chief constituents of detrital rocks include:
Chemical sedimentary rocks consist of precipitated material that was once in solution.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORThe most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is
CHECK YOUR ANSWERThe most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is
Texture refers to the size, shape, and arrangement of grains within a rock.
CHECK YOUR NEIGHBORRecrystallization can occur when
CHECK YOUR ANSWERRecrystallization can occur when