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De Franse Revolutie “Bourgeois “ Fase: 1789-1792. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…

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De Franse Revolutie

“Bourgeois “ Fase:

1789-1792

Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

slide2
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…

-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

slide3
De FranseMonarchie:1775 - 1793

Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

slide7
The Necklace Scandal

1,600,000 livres[$100 million today]

  • Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
  • The Countess de LaMotte
slide8
Laatzedan cake eten!
  • Marie Antoinette heeftditnooitgezegd!
  • “Madame Deficit”
  • “De Oostenrijkse hoer”
slide11
Financieleproblemen in Frankrijk

1789

  • Urban Commoner’sBudget:
    • Food 80%
    • Rent 25%
    • Tithe 10%
    • Taxes 35%
    • Clothing 20%
    • TOTAL 170%
  • King’s Budget:
    • Interest 50%
    • Army 25%
    • Versailles 25%
    • Coronation 10%
    • Loans 25%
    • Admin. 25%
    • TOTAL 160%
slide14
Lettres de Cachet
  • De Fransekoningkonmensengevangenzetten via a brief met zijnzegel.
  • Carte-blanche
  • KardinaalFleurygaf 80,000 van dez e brievenuit ten tijde van Lodewijk XV!
  • Afgeschaft in 1790.
slide16
Stemmen in de NationaleVergadering

Clergy

1st Estate

1

Aristocracy

2nd Estate

1

1

Commoners

3rd Estate

LodewijkXIV wildedatditsysteem in tact

slide17
De NationaleVergaderingwildestemmen per hoofd!

Clergy

1st Estate

300

Aristocracy

2nd Estate

300

648

Commoners

3rd Estate

slide18
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes

1stWatis derdestand?Alles!

2ndWat was de derde stand tot nu toe?Niets!

3rdWateist de derde

de derde stand?

Ietstezijn!

Abbé Sieyès1748-1836

slide19
Bijeenkomst van de Staten-Generaal

Mei, 1789

De laatstekeer was dezebijeengekomen in 1614!

slide20
“De Derde Stand wordtwakker”
  • De Derde stand riepzichuit tot de vertegenwoordigers van de natie
  • Zijnoemdenzichzelf de NationaleVergaderingvan Frankrijk.
slide23
De bestorming van de Bastille,

14 Juli 1789

  • 18 doden.
  • 73 gewonden.
  • 7 bewakersgedood.
  • Erwaren 7 gevangenen[5 gewonemisdadigers en 2 gekken].
slide24
De grote angst: Eenboerenopstand (July 20, 1789)
  • Ergingengeruchtendat de defeodaleaistocratiehuur-troepenstuurdeom de boerenaantevallen en hun land teplunderen.
slide26
Nachtelijkebijeenkomst 4 augustus 1789
  • Voor de nachtvoorbij was:
    • Was het feodalesysteemafgeschaft.
    • VielenalleFransen, tenminste in principe, onderdezelfdewetten en dezelfdebelastingen en warenzijgelijkelijkverkiesbaar.

Equality & Meritocracy!

slide27
NationaleConstituerendeVergadering1789 - 1791

Liberté!

Egalité!

Fraternité!

August Decreten 4-11 augustus1789

(afzweren van aristocratische privileges!)

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BUT . . . . .
  • Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]
  • Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.
    • Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.

Their Goal

Safeguard the right of private property!!

slide29
The Tricolor (1789)

The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.

Citizen!

slide32
RevolutionairSymbolen

Cockade

Liberté

La Republic

Revolutionary Clock

slide34
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

August 26, 1789

  • Liberty!
  • Property!
  • Resistance to oppression!
  • Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
slide35
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas

Did women have equal rights with men?

What about free blacks in the colonies?

How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?

Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?

slide36
March of the Women,October 5-6, 1789

A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.

We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!

slide37
The “October Days” (1789)

The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.

slide39
Sir Edmund Burke (1790):Reflections on the Revolution in France

The conservative response to the French Revolution

slide40
How to Finance the New Govt.?1.Confiscate Church Lands (1790)

One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

slide41
2. Print Assignats
  • Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
  • Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.
slide42
Depreciation of the Assignat
  • Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.
  • The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.
  • They began circulating as paper currency.
    • Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].
    • Therefore, future governments paid off their creditors with cheap money.
slide43
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 12,1790

Juryingvs.Non-Jurying[refractory]Clergy

The oath of allegiance permanently divided the Catholic population!

slide44
New Relations Between Church & State
  • Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.
  • The church was reorganized:
    • Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.
    • Bishops  named by the department assemblies.
    • The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.
  • It transformed France’sRoman Catholic Churchinto a branch of the state!!

Pope Pius VI[1775-1799]

slide46
The French Constitution of 1791:

A Bourgeois Government

  • The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].
    • He could not pass laws.
    • His ministers were responsible for their own actions.
  • A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.
    • Had the power to grant taxation.
  • An independent judiciary.
slide47
The French Constitution of 1791:

A Bourgeois Government

  • “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.
    • 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.
    • Domestic servants were also excluded.
  • A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.

GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!

slide49
De koninklijkefamilieprobeerttevluchten
  • Juni1791
  • Geholpen door de Zweedsegraaf Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
  • Richting de Luxemburgsegrens.
  • De koningwerdherkend in Varennes, vlakbij de grens
slide50
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
  • Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
  • But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen (1791)

slide51
The First Coalition &TheBrunswick Manifesto(August 3, 1792)

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!

1792-1797

FRANCE

AUSTRIAPRUSSIABRITAINSPAINPIEDMONT

This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.

slide52
FranseSoldaten & de Tricolore:ViveLa Patrie!
  • The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.
  • ½ of the officer corps had emigrated.
  • Many men disserted.
  • New recruits were enthusiastic, butill-trained.
  • French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.
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