Some NW ctenophores http://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/image12.gif
Close-up of a comb row http://micscape.simplenet.com/mag/artmay98/comb.html
CTENOPHORES: diffuse epidermal nerve net plus a specialized apical sense organ which coordinates ciliary beats JA Pechenik (2000)Biology of the Invertebrates Figs. 7.1 & 7.2
Bioluminescence in the ctenophore Eurhamphea vexiligera http://www.biolum.org/marine/biolum2/middle/livinglights/lljelly3content.html
a benthic Ctenophore! (platyctene)… …on a starfish arm! (Asteropsis carnifera) Kailua-Kona, Hawai’i
bi-radial symmetry in a cnidarian!! plankton - Oahu, Hawai’i
importance of coral/coral reefs symbiotic association with algae (zooxanthellae, zoochlorellae) makes them key primary producers coral tissues are food for many reef animals, including fish, worms, molluscs, etc. skeletons give long term structure to the reef, providing microhabitats for tons of critters (fish, lobsters, worms, crabs, molluscs, echinoderms, and on & on) coral reef habitats are some of the most diverse habitats on earth (i.e. that have high "biodiversity") coral reef habitats could provide sustainable harvests for humans toxins and other chemical compounds derived from reef creatures have pharmaceutical potential photo: GBRMBPA mass spawning in Acropora; photo: AIMS http://www.reef.crc.org.au/aboutreef/coral/coral.html
reported environmental problems with coral reefs around the world (1997-2002) Frank, U. and O. Mokady (2002) Coral biodiversity and evolution: Recent molecular contributions. Can. J. Zool.80: 1723-1734.
Callum, M. et al (2002) Science 295: 1280-1284 fish coral snails lobsters high biodiversity overlap areas for all four taxa "threat" index areas with lots of "endemism" (≈unique species) colors indicate numbers of known species (blue=low to red=high) (blue=low; yellow= medium; red=high)
JAMAICA REEFS, pre-1970’S OVERFISHING predatory fish herbivorous fish (algal growth kept in check) Terence P. Hughes (1994) Catastrophes, Phase Shifts, and Large-Scale Degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef. Science 265: 1547-1551.
JAMAICA REEFS, 1970’S OVERFISHING herbivorous fish Diadema antillarum (algal growth still kept in check) http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ marinebio/coralreef.html Terence P. Hughes (1994) Catastrophes, Phase Shifts, and Large-Scale Degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef. Science 265: 1547-1551.
JAMAICA REEFS, 1983 • “PATHOGEN” • Diadema antillarum • growth of brown, fleshy algae • coral larval settlement coral growth rates Terence P. Hughes (1994) Catastrophes, Phase Shifts, and Large-Scale Degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef. Science 265: 1547-1551.
Nystrom, Folke & Moberg (2000) Coral reef resilience and disturbance in a human-dominated environmentTREE 15: 413-417
Timothy R. Mcclanahan and Nyawira A. Muthiga (1998) An ecological shift in a remote coral atoll of Belize over 25 years. Environment. Conserv. 25: 122–130. an example of a “phase shift” in coral reefs
Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) Triton Trumpet (Charonia tritonis) Acropora cf.tenuis http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/ pierofun/planci/planci.htm http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/ pierofun/planci/planci.htm (...and many other coral) http://www.coralreefnetwork.com/ marlife/inverts/asteroid.htm