Access to Project Stakeholder Information.
In principle, full available information on project stakeholders should be acces-sible only to those persons who are directly concerned with analyzing their potential impact on the project and de-vising and implementing strategies for “engaging” them. Some information can be provided to other individuals and en-tities if a need arises.
Care must be taken to ensure the secu-rity of the information stored in electron-ic and/or file-based systems in order to avoid any complications in the relation-ship between the project team and pro-ject stakeholders which unintended dis-closure may cause.
The project manager and his/her team members (and possibly consultants) who are concerned with undertaking and monitoring the stakeholder analysis and designing, implementing and/or periodically revising the stakeholder engagement strategies would normally require full access to the available spectrum of information on project stakeholders.
Restricted access via Inter- or Intranet, password-controlled, secure network, backups to prevent data loss or corruption
Less mobility of information, difficult to retrieve if lost, damaged or stolen, physical security need high
Note that more quantity of information does not necessarily mean that the information is more useful in terms of undertaking a rigorous stakeholder analysis and designing and implementing effective stakeholder engagement strategies.
Before collecting information on pro-ject stakeholders, the project mana-ger and team must have a clear idea exactly what information is re-quired to avoid wasting time, cost and effort on amassing and processing “redundant” information.
Project Stakeholders who are directly involved in financing, planning, implementing or overseeing the project
Project Owner, Customer, Users, Financers, Sponsor, Manager and Team Members
Project Stakeholders who are required by mission or law to provide support to the project but are not directly involved in the activities mentioned above
Local Administration, Government Agencies and other Public-Sector Organizations
Increasing Need for Periodic Updates
Project Stakeholders who are not involved in the project contractually or through legal obligation but are affected by it and may intervene in it at some point in time
Local Community (for certain projects), Diverse Professional Organizations, Environmentalists, NGOs, Media etc.
Project secondary stakeholders in the sense of Cleland/Ireland are individuals, groups of individuals, organizational enti-ties and communities (and even countries) which have no formal contractual or legal relationship to a project, but who/which believe they have, a stake in it.
Project secondary stakeholders can, de-pending on the nature and circumstances of the project in question, be very hard to identify, and their influence on the project may be both considerable as well as favourable or unfavourable.
Project secondary stakeholders may cause serious problems for the project if they are opposed to it and hence particular caution needs to be excercized in dealing with them since they operate independently and out-side the control of the project manager and the project team.
Acording to Cleland/Ireland, the typical attributes of project
secondary stakeholders include:
Project secondary stakeholders who actively oppose a project may cause serious problems for the project resulting, for example, in:
- project cost overrun
- project completion delay
- unanticipated modifications to the project
scope / specifications, or – in the extreme
- the complete abandonment of the project!
(economic, financial, social, ecological , security, etc.)
Rational Behavi-our, access to information, long-term perspective, consideration of the time factor
Issues of Concern
Perceptoion of Net Gain
Perceptoion of Net Loss
Strongly - Marginally
Strongly - Marginally
The intensity of stakeholder supportiveness, indif-ference or adversity towards a project is determined primarily by the nature of the project and the percep-tions which the stakeholders develop about it based on the information they have and, possibly their pre-vious experience with similar projects
A project to develop a Walt Disney Theme Park near a township would probably generate more support among stakeholders than than a project for construction of a nuclear power station because of the stigma attached to the nuclear power industry.
When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] > Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life] Stakeholders will be supportive
When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] = Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life] Stakeholders will be indifferent
When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] < Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life] Stakeholders will be adversarialStakeholder Perceptions of Projects: The „Quality of Life“ Dimension
Basic Assumption: RATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The project‘s secondary stakeholders will try to maximize their „quality of life“.
To do this they must have access to all the requisite information they require in order to carefully analyze and assess the project‘s potential impact on them over time, which includes the period of time both before as well as after the project‘s completion
Considerations which determine project stakeholders „Quality of Life“
perception would normally include:
The perceptions must be seen in a time-sensitive context
Many projects, particularly of the infrastructure type, re-quire large substantial amounts of labour. In poorer communities where job opportunities are scarce, unemployment usually high and the regional economy is structurally weak, projects may be the only source of income for large numbers of local people.
Projects do not require human resources only – they also often require material resource inputs in the form of raw materials and semi-finished products as well as services to be provided on-site. Projects can hence boost local businesses, gene-rating a stream of income extending over a part or whole of the project duration.
Some projects have a long lasting impact on the com-munities in which they are undertaken – and, for projects which are considered highly desirable such as theme parks, the locationing of offices of major corpora-tions and large shopping malls, this may reflect in an increase in property value over time.
Some projects may have a long-term desirable impact in terms of the volume of in-vestment which they attract to (and generate within) the community after their com-pletion. For example, a pro-ject to set up a vocational training institute in a town may prompt prompt small and medium-sized busines-ses to settle there.
(Business from Tourism)
Tourism is big business – and tourists like to flock to places which offer opportunities for fun, sightseeing and recrea-tion, and which may be uni-que in some sense.
Tourism is the prime source of earning for many destina-tions and projects which can „facilitate“ it often generate widespread support.
(Standard of Living)
There are many projects which, on completion, can offer stakeholders access to an improved standard of living in terms of access to a larger and better range of goods and services.
Projects which fall under this category include shopping malls, commercial plazas, cinemas and entertainment halls.
Many projects generate support among stakeholders simply because they are con-sidered important for the de-velopment of the local com-munity in which they are undertaken or for the wider community at large. An example is the Beijing Olym-pic Games 2008 which gene-rated tremendous support among the Chinese people.