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access to project stakeholder information
Access to Project Stakeholder Information

In principle, full available information on project stakeholders should be acces-sible only to those persons who are directly concerned with analyzing their potential impact on the project and de-vising and implementing strategies for “engaging” them. Some information can be provided to other individuals and en-tities if a need arises.

Care must be taken to ensure the secu-rity of the information stored in electron-ic and/or file-based systems in order to avoid any complications in the relation-ship between the project team and pro-ject stakeholders which unintended dis-closure may cause.

The project manager and his/her team members (and possibly consultants) who are concerned with undertaking and monitoring the stakeholder analysis and designing, implementing and/or periodically revising the stakeholder engagement strategies would normally require full access to the available spectrum of information on project stakeholders.

project stakeholder information systems
Project Stakeholder Information Systems

Restricted access via Inter- or Intranet, password-controlled, secure network, backups to prevent data loss or corruption


Periodic Updates




Less mobility of information, difficult to retrieve if lost, damaged or stolen, physical security need high

quality of project stakeholder information
Quality of Project Stakeholder Information

Note that more quantity of information does not necessarily mean that the information is more useful in terms of undertaking a rigorous stakeholder analysis and designing and implementing effective stakeholder engagement strategies.

Before collecting information on pro-ject stakeholders, the project mana-ger and team must have a clear idea exactly what information is re-quired to avoid wasting time, cost and effort on amassing and processing “redundant” information.

  • Accurate
  • Adequate
  • Relevant
  • Up-to-Date
  • Specific
  • Reliable
  • Verifiable
  • Actionable
  • Proactive
  • Sources
updating information on project stakeholders
Updating Information on Project Stakeholders

Project Stakeholders who are directly involved in financing, planning, implementing or overseeing the project

Project Owner, Customer, Users, Financers, Sponsor, Manager and Team Members

Project Stakeholders who are required by mission or law to provide support to the project but are not directly involved in the activities mentioned above

Local Administration, Government Agencies and other Public-Sector Organizations

Increasing Need for Periodic Updates

Project Stakeholders who are not involved in the project contractually or through legal obligation but are affected by it and may intervene in it at some point in time

Local Community (for certain projects), Diverse Professional Organizations, Environmentalists, NGOs, Media etc.

stakeholder swot analysis stakeholder strengths
Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis(Stakeholder Strengths)
  • Well informed about the project and its consequences
  • High level of commitment, determination and tenacity
  • Can organize quickly
  • Capable of devising effective strategies to further their interests and objectives
  • Highly vocal
  • Considerable financial, material and other resources
  • Skillful in using information and communication technology
  • Ability to influence those who count
  • Ability to form alliances with other stakeholders
  • Awareness of diverse options to influence the course of the project
stakeholder swot analysis stakeholder weaknesses
Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis(Stakeholder Weaknesses)
  • Disinterested in the project or ignorant of its conse-quences
  • Have too little time to contemplate project in detail
  • Lack of financial, informational and other resources at their disposal to influence the project
  • Inability to organize themselves collectively
  • Inability to form alliances with other stakeholders
  • Inability to form effective strategies to deal with the project
  • Unaware of their rights in connection with the project
  • Uninformed about their options (institutional, legal and other) to influence the project
stakeholder swot analysis stakeholder opportunities
Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis(Stakeholder Opportunities)
  • Not opposed to the change which the project is expec-ted to bring
  • Willingness to listen and cooperate
  • Can be convinced that they stand to benefit from the project during and subsequent to its implementation
  • Can be targetted by the project manager and team with the appropriate engagement strategies
  • Can provide material, infomational and moral support to the project
  • Can be encouraged to lobby in support of the project among other stakeholders who may have reservations about it
stakeholder swot analysis stakeholder threats
Stakeholder SWOT-Analysis(Stakeholder Threats)
  • May have misperceptions about the project which may prompt them to act against it
  • May refuse to cooperate
  • May organize themselves politically to oppose project
  • May launch a campaign of spreading disinformation about the project to influence the wider stakeholder community against it
  • May attempt to influence powerful stakeholders to intervene in the project
  • May mount a legal challenge the project or resort to scare tactics and intimidation in an attempt to “kill” the project or at least cause cost and schedule overruns and alter its scope
a note on project secondary stakeholders
A Note on Project Secondary Stakeholders

Project secondary stakeholders in the sense of Cleland/Ireland are individuals, groups of individuals, organizational enti-ties and communities (and even countries) which have no formal contractual or legal relationship to a project, but who/which believe they have, a stake in it.

a note on project secondary stakeholders10
A Note on Project Secondary Stakeholders

Project secondary stakeholders can, de-pending on the nature and circumstances of the project in question, be very hard to identify, and their influence on the project may be both considerable as well as favourable or unfavourable.

a note on project secondary stakeholders11
A Note on Project Secondary Stakeholders

Project secondary stakeholders may cause serious problems for the project if they are opposed to it and hence particular caution needs to be excercized in dealing with them since they operate independently and out-side the control of the project manager and the project team.

a note on project secondary stakeholders12
A Note on Project Secondary Stakeholders

Acording to Cleland/Ireland, the typical attributes of project

secondary stakeholders include:

  • An unrestrained ability to try to influence the project
  • That their interest in the project may be genuine or simply perceived
  • Involvement which is conditioned by the perception of gaining some advantage from the project
  • Teaming up with other project secondary stakeholders to campaign for or against the project
  • Availability of a number of options to influence the project
a note on project secondary stakeholders13
A Note on Project Secondary Stakeholders

Project secondary stakeholders who actively oppose a project may cause serious problems for the project resulting, for example, in:

- project cost overrun

- project completion delay

- unanticipated modifications to the project

scope / specifications, or – in the extreme


- the complete abandonment of the project!

project impact on stakeholders
Project Impact on Stakeholders

Pre-Project Phase

Change Impact

(economic, financial, social, ecological , security, etc.)

Project Phase

Post-Project Phase

Stakeholder Engagement


Rational Behavi-our, access to information, long-term perspective, consideration of the time factor


Issues of Concern




project stakeholders attitudes and behaviour manifestations
Project Stakeholders: Attitudes and Behaviour Manifestations



Perceptoion of Net Gain

Perceptoion of Net Loss



Strongly - Marginally











Strongly - Marginally



stakeholder perceptions of projects
Stakeholder Perceptions Of Projects

The intensity of stakeholder supportiveness, indif-ference or adversity towards a project is determined primarily by the nature of the project and the percep-tions which the stakeholders develop about it based on the information they have and, possibly their pre-vious experience with similar projects

A project to develop a Walt Disney Theme Park near a township would probably generate more support among stakeholders than than a project for construction of a nuclear power station because of the stigma attached to the nuclear power industry.

stakeholder perceptions of projects the quality of life dimension

When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] > Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life]  Stakeholders will be supportive

When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] = Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life]  Stakeholders will be indifferent

When Perceived Gain from Project [Improvement in Quality of Life] < Perceived Loss from Project [Reduction in Quality of Life]  Stakeholders will be adversarial

Stakeholder Perceptions of Projects: The „Quality of Life“ Dimension


The project‘s secondary stakeholders will try to maximize their „quality of life“.

To do this they must have access to all the requisite information they require in order to carefully analyze and assess the project‘s potential impact on them over time, which includes the period of time both before as well as after the project‘s completion

factors which determine stakeholders attitude and behaviour towards projects
Factors Which Determine Stakeholders‘ Attitude and Behaviour Towards Projects

Considerations which determine project stakeholders „Quality of Life“

perception would normally include:

  • Economic (individual and community gains and losses)
  • Financial (as above)
  • Social (neighborhood and community cohesion and spirit)
  • Health (physical and emotional well-being)
  • Physical Environment (pollution, aesthetics)
  • Ecological (preservation and destruction of ecosystems)
  • Conservation (culture, archeological and historical assets)
  • Security (improvement, status quo, decline)
  • Attitude Towards Change (impact on life style etc.)
  • Opportunity for personal development caused by project

The perceptions must be seen in a time-sensitive context


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Economic Considerations)

Many projects, particularly of the infrastructure type, re-quire large substantial amounts of labour. In poorer communities where job opportunities are scarce, unemployment usually high and the regional economy is structurally weak, projects may be the only source of income for large numbers of local people.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Economic Considerations)

Projects do not require human resources only – they also often require material resource inputs in the form of raw materials and semi-finished products as well as services to be provided on-site. Projects can hence boost local businesses, gene-rating a stream of income extending over a part or whole of the project duration.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Financial Considerations)

Some projects have a long lasting impact on the com-munities in which they are undertaken – and, for projects which are considered highly desirable such as theme parks, the locationing of offices of major corpora-tions and large shopping malls, this may reflect in an increase in property value over time.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Financial Considerations)

Some projects may have a long-term desirable impact in terms of the volume of in-vestment which they attract to (and generate within) the community after their com-pletion. For example, a pro-ject to set up a vocational training institute in a town may prompt prompt small and medium-sized busines-ses to settle there.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Business from Tourism)

Tourism is big business – and tourists like to flock to places which offer opportunities for fun, sightseeing and recrea-tion, and which may be uni-que in some sense.

Tourism is the prime source of earning for many destina-tions and projects which can „facilitate“ it often generate widespread support.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?

(Standard of Living)

There are many projects which, on completion, can offer stakeholders access to an improved standard of living in terms of access to a larger and better range of goods and services.

Projects which fall under this category include shopping malls, commercial plazas, cinemas and entertainment halls.


Why are Project Stakeholders Supportive?


Many projects generate support among stakeholders simply because they are con-sidered important for the de-velopment of the local com-munity in which they are undertaken or for the wider community at large. An example is the Beijing Olym-pic Games 2008 which gene-rated tremendous support among the Chinese people.