NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future. N.K. Tovey ( 杜伟贤 ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director C Red Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation. 10. Energy Balance Tables. Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal. 1.
N.K. Tovey (杜伟贤) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv
Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук
Energy Science DirectorCRedProject
HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation
Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal
Energy Supply including imports/exports
Energy Industry Use
Other Energy Demand
PetaJoules ( PJ)
Simplified Aggregate Energy Balance 2008 - from Table 1.1 Dukes (2009)
F = A*+
K = F-J
Transfers represent transfers between columns – e.g. Primary electricity is generally large scale renewables and nuclear, but the non-nuclear component is transferred as it is not involved in the energy conversion process in next section.
i.e 498.6 PJ is attributed to gross nuclear generation (i.e. before conversion), and 44.2 is transferred as renewables.
-ve quantities indicate inputs to conversion, +ve indicates outputs.
1488.5 PJ of coal was used as input to conversion processes of which 1252.3 PJ (see box in full table) went to electricity production.
3688.5 PJ of crude oil produced 3624.4 PJ of Petroleum products.
1252.3 PJ of coal went into electricity generation as did 35.9 PJ of coke, 41.4 PJ of oil, 1346.7 PJ of natural gas. 148.1 PJ of waste/biomass and 498.6PJ of nuclear equivalent.
In total 1343.8PJ were generated from thermal plants with an input of
In 2008, 1252.3 PJ of coal went into electricity generation as did 35.9 PJ of coke, 41.4 PJ of oil, 1346.7 PJ of natural gas. 148.1 PJ of waste/biomass and 498.6PJ of nuclear equivalent.
Total Input = 3323.1 PJ with 1343.8PJgenerated.
Thus the overall thermodynamic efficiency of generation
= 1343.8 / 3323.1 = 40.4%
In the balance table 498.6PJ was nuclear input,
actual amount of nuclear electricity generated = 498.6 * 0.404 = 201.6PJ
Electricity use on stations = 58.7PJ (from full table)
Overall station efficiency of fossil fuel plant allowing for station use
= (1343.8 – 58.7 ) / 3323.1 = 38.67%
Transmission Losses = 98.7PJ or 98.7/(1343.8-58.7) = 7.68%
The total losses associated with the electricity industry
= 58.7 + 98.7 + 4.6 = 162.1
So first order Primary Energy Ratio for electricity
= 3323.1/(1343.8 – 162.1) = 2.81
assumes that the PER for coal, oil and gas is 1.0
Similar first order analysis gives a PER of 1.11 for oil.
Using an iterative approach second order estimates are obtained as follows.
However, what about fuel extracted overseas. This second order analysis assumes that the PERs in those countries are same as UK.
What is the magnitude of the CO2 problem?
How does UK compare with other countries?
Why do some countries emit more CO2 than others?
Per capita Carbon Emissions
Electricity Generation i n selected Countries
Data from IEA data base for Coal for Japan
Total coal based products consumed in power stations = 3096190 TJ
Total Electricity generated 310796 GWH = 118866 TJ
Efficiency of coal fired generation = 118866/3096190 = 36.14%
Transmission Losses 4.50% so overall efficiency = 36.14 * 0.955 = 34.51%
If carbon factor for direct combustion is ~ 320 g/kWh
Carbon factor for coal generation = 320/0.3451 = 927 g/kWh
If efficiency ~ 30% then carbon factor would have been 1067 g/kWh
Figures in Red from IEA data base for Electricity (Japan)