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  1. LEARNING MODES (LMs) ANTÓNIO DUARTE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON PORTUGAL THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMERMUltigradeSchool Training New Educational Methodologies for the "Standard" and MultigradeSchools 19-28 July 2007 Rhodes - Greece

  2. UA SUMMERMUST Contents 1. What are LMs? 2. How many LMs? 3. LMs in different tasks: the case of ICT based learning 4. LMs & Education 5. Natural practices for LMs 6. Research-based practices for LMs : the case of active ICT based learning 7. Resources.

  3. UA SUMMERMUST 1. What are LMs? -Variation observed in the learning process (e.g. individualistic - collaborative) -Variation sources: learning situation / learning needs -Diversity of learning modes more or less adapted to students / situations. -Consistent use: Learning Style.

  4. UA SUMMERMUST AXES SENSORIAL COGNITIVE MOTIVATIONAL RELATIONAL 2. How many LMs? PASSIVE UNI SENSORIAL COOPERATIVE AUTONOMOUS NEGATIVE POSITIVE INDIVIDUALIST DEPENDENT MULTI SENSORIAL ACTIVE

  5. UA SUMMERMUST LEARNING FROM ICT PASSIVE COGNITIVE AXE ICT BASED LEARNING LEARNING WITH ICT ACTIVE 3. LMs in different tasks the case of ICT based learning KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION WITH ICT - multi & meaningful representation of personal knowledge - critical thinking

  6. UA SUMMERMUST • LEARNERSIMPROVE • WITH CERTAIN • LMs • PROMOTION OF PARTICULAR • LMs: • COOPERATIVE • AUTONOMOUS • POSITIVE MOTIVATED • ACTIVE • MULTISENSORIAL 4. LMs & Educationperspectives: LEARNERS IMPROVE BY USING PREFERED LMs OR A VARIETY OF MODES VARIATION OF PRACTICES

  7. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs (Duarte & Paasimäki, 2007)Variation of practices in function of learners’ LMs • personalized-teaching • attending alternatively to small groups (while others work autonomosly) • differentiating contents, methods and materials (e.g. more concrete or more abstract).

  8. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs practices for collaborative learning • Collective reading & writing • Group problems • Group projects • Collective games.

  9. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs practices for autonomous learning • Several open thematic areas in the classroom • Setting of problems • Distribution of tasks and delegation of responsibilities • Encouragement of autonomous learning or of task definition • Task definition • Prompt of Planning and Joint work evaluation.

  10. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs practices for positive motivation • Free-choice activities • Open problems • Familiar examples • Familiar tasks; Easy tasks (for those with difficulties) or Challenging tasks (for more competent pupils) • Encouragement of knowledge appliance • Enthusiasm & Optimism • Dramatic reading • Reciprocal teaching • Inviting parents & guests • Encouragement, Self-evaluation & Positive reinforcement • Assistance demanding Home works.

  11. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs Practices For Active Learning • Tactile-kinestesic learning • Discovery learning • Open tasks • Reciprocal teaching • Writing tasks • Questioning & Empirical testing of pupil’s conceptions • Use of pupils’ language • Questioning, Explaining, Discussing.

  12. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMs Practices for Multisensorial Learning • Study visits • Practical situations for contact with real objects • Activities for exploring and discover • Using films or slideshows to support learning • Arranging opportunities for smelling different odors related to content • Inviting guests for presenting information in a multi-sensorial way • Demanding verbal descriptions of touched objects • Organizing dramatic expression of contents • Demanding pupils’ expression or presentation of information in a multi-sensorial way

  13. UA SUMMERMUST 2. Natural practices for LMspractices for active ICT based learning Prompting: • computer-based search, organization, transformation & presentation of information • small-group work with the computer • communication with other pupils via computer.

  14. UA SUMMERMUST 3. Research-based practices for LMs(www.nemed-project.org)

  15. UA SUMMERMUST 3. Research-based practices for LMs (www.nemed-project.org)

  16. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps DEFINITION PRESENTING AND ENCOURAGING LEARNERS TO USE A SOFTWARE APPLICATION TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF cMAPS WHAT ARE cMAPS? (OR SEMANTIC NETWORKS) SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF CONCEPTS (AND THEIR RELATIONS) THAT VISUALIZE MENTAL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES. - NODULES REPRESENT CONCEPTS (TEXT / IMAGES) - LINES REPRESENT RELATION BETWEEN CONCEPTS.

  17. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps RATIONAL cMAPS FACILITATE ACTIVE LEARNING BY: -ENCOURAGING “HYPERMEDIA” STRUCTURING OF CONTENT, IN TOPICS AND SUBTOPICS, HIERARCHICALLY OR FUNCTIONALLY RELATED IN A VISUAL FHELPS TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION AND TO DEVELOP A WELL STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE BASE) -ALLOWING AN ACTIVE AND INTERACTIVE CONTENT EXPLORATION -ALIGNING WITH LEARNERS’ MOTIVATION TOWARD ICT

  18. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps GOALS STIMULATE ACTIVE LEARNING BY ENCOURAGING AN ORGANIZED AND MEANINGFUL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE

  19. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps • PROCEDURE • -PRESENT A SOFTWARE APPLICATION FOR cMAPS • (E.G. “CMAP TOOLS” – HTTP://CMAP.IHMC.US/). • -EXEMPLIFY   • -CLARIFY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH THIS KIND OF SOFTWARE • DEMAND REHARSAL • - SUPPLY “FEEDBACK”

  20. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH THIS KIND OF SOFTWARE: · COMPLEXITY (HIGH NUMBER OF CONCEPTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS) · PRECISE DIFFERENTIATION OF CONTENTS · STRUCTURING AND RESTRUCTURING OF CONCEPTS (I.E. SEGMENTING INITIAL CONCEPTS, ADDING NEW CONCEPTS, MODIFYING OR DELETING INITIAL CONCEPTS, CHANGING THE ORDER OF CONCEPTS, ETC.) · “DESCRIPTIVE” AND “INTERPRETATIVE” CONCEPTS (I.E. PERSONAL IDEAS, INFERENCES, LIMITATIONS, CRITICS, RELATED INFORMATION, IMPLICATIONS, ETC.) · ORIGINAL CONCEPTS · HIGH (BUT NOT EXAGGERATED) NUMBER OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS · VARIED TYPES OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS (E.G. “IS A PART OF”; “IS EXAMPLE OF”; “IS FACTOR OF”; “DEPENDS ON”; “IS IN SEQUENCE OF”) ·  DESCRIPTION OF THE LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS ·  HYPERLINKING OF CONCEPTS WITH OTHER FILES

  21. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps EXAMPLES

  22. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps • EVALUATION (CRITERIA): • · DIVERSIFICATION OF INFORMATION • · COMPLEXITY OF THE MAP (E.G. NUMBER OF CONCEPTS, LINKS AND LEVELS) • · DISCRIMINATION CLARITY OF CONCEPTS • · DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURING AND RESTRUCTURING THE CONCEPTS • · PRESENCE OF “INTERPRETATIVE” CONCEPTS   • · PRESENCE OF ORIGINAL CONCEPTS • · DIVERSIFICATION OF TYPES OF LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS • · PRESENCE OF NAMED LINKS BETWEEN CONCEPTS • PRESENCE OF HYPERLINKS

  23. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps RESOURCES JONASSEN D. H. (1995). COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM: MINDTOOLS FOR CRITICAL THINKING. MERRIL PR. JONASSEN D. H., CHAD, C. & YUEH, H. (1998). COMPUTERS AS MINDTOOLS FOR ENGAGING LEARNERS IN CRITICAL THINKING. TECHTRENDS, 43(2), PP24-32. (INTERNET) NOVAK, J. D. & CAÑAS A. J. (2006). THE THEORY UNDERLYING CONCEPT MAPS AND HOW TO CONSTRUCT THEM. (HTTP://CMAP.IHMC.US/PUBLICATIONS/RESEARCHPAPERS/THEORYUNDERLYINGCONCEPTMAPS.PDF)

  24. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps TEST 1) WHAT ARE CONCEPTUAL MAPS? 2) REFER TWO CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE LEARNING WITH cMAPS

  25. UA SUMMERMUST ACTIVE ICT BASED LEARNINGPractice: Conceptual Maps TRANSFER Plan 1. When to use the practice? 2. In which groups? 3. How to organize the groups? 4. How to organize the materials? 5. What eventual adaptations of the practice are to be made?  Application Evaluation 1. When did the practice occurred? 2.In which groups? 3.How were the groups organized? 4. What eventual adaptations of the practicewere made? 5. How did the practice activities occur? 6. What positive aspects? 7. What difficulties? 8. What to modify for next applications?

  26. UA SUMMERMUST 8. Resources: www.nemed-project.org c

  27. LEARNING MODES antonio.duarte@fpce.ul.pt THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN SUMMERMUltigradeSchool Training New Educational Methodologies for the "Standard" and MultigradeSchools 19-28 July 2007 Rhodes - Greece