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Causes of Infertility and its Treatments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Infertility is the failure to conceive after a specific period of time of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse, or the occurrence of three or more consecutive miscarriages or stillbirths

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Causes of Infertility and its Treatments

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creating families successfully for more than

Creating Families Successfully

for more than 50 Countries

what is infertility
What is Infertility?

Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year. 

10-15% of population is infertile

main causes of infertility
Main Causes of Infertility

Multiple relatively minor abnormalities, either with 1 partner or both, account for 30% of all causes

female infertility
Female Infertility
  • When the cause of infertility exists within the female partner, it is referred to as female infertility. 
  • Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time.
  • Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. 
causes of female infertility
Causes of Female Infertility
  • Ovulation disorders
  • Tube/uterus blockage
  • Cervix
  • Endometriosis
  • Implantation defects-progesterone low
  • Spontaneous abortion-chromosome abnormality
more detail on female infertility
More detail on female infertility
  • Damage to your fallopian tubes- These structures carry eggs from your ovaries, which produce eggs, to the uterus, where the baby develops. They can get damaged when scars form after pelvic infections, endometriosis, and pelvic surgery. That can prevent sperm from reaching an egg.
  • Hormonal problems- you may not be getting pregnant because your body isn't going through the usual hormone changes that lead to the release of an egg from the ovary and the thickening of the lining of the uterus.
  • Cervical issues- Some women have a condition that prevents sperm from passing through the cervical canal.
  • Uterine trouble-  You may have polyps and fibroids that interfere with getting pregnant.
causes of poorly functioning fallopian tubes
Causes of Poorly Functioning Fallopian Tubes


Caused by both bacteria and viruses and usually transmitted sexually, these infections commonly cause inflammation resulting in scarring and damage.  

Abdominal Diseases

 The most common of these are appendicitis and colitis, causing inflammation of the abdominal cavity which can affect the fallopian tubes and lead to scarring and blockage.

previous surgeries this is an important cause

Previous Surgeries

This is an important cause of tubal disease and damage.  Pelvic or abdominal surgery can result in adhesions that alter the tubes in such a way that eggs cannot travel through them.

Ectopic Pregnancy

This is a pregnancy that occurs in the tube itself and, even if carefully and successfully overcome, may cause tubal damage       and is a potentially life-threatening condition.

Congenital Defects

   In rare cases, women may be born with tubal abnormalities, usually associated with uterus irregularities.

i v f
  • In
  • Vitro
  • Fertilization

“Test tube babies”

basic steps in ivf
Basic Steps in IVF

Ovary stimulation

Egg retrieval

Sperm retrieval-wash sperm


Embryo transfer



Injection of washed prepared sperms into the uterine cavity through a fine catheter during peri-ovulatory phase in a natural or stimulated cycle.

  • Although pregnancy may not occur as quickly, a policy of initial treatment by IUI will probably save 20% of couples from moving onto IVF
  • After 3-4 cycles of failed IUI treatment, patients should be encouraged to opt for IVF

The procedure may help in increasing the chances of pregnancy in following ways –

  • Allowing sperm-ovum contact close to the date and time of ovulation
  • By bringing the sperm very close to the site of fertilization and by passing the cervical factors
  • Sperm preparation increases the sperm density and removes all antigens on the surface of sperm and in seminal plasma
  • IUI is the simplest and the least expensive method of ART
  • IUI alone (natural cycle) does not improve pregnancy chances, hence mild ovarian stimulation is usually recommended.