Infertility Treatments Kjelsey Courtney Kayla
What is Infertility? Not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying. Or six months, if a woman is 35 or older. Women who are unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile.
Is it a common problem? “About 10 percent of women (6.1 million) in the United States ages 15-44 have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).” (http://www.medicinenet.com/infertility/article.htm)
Statistics About 1/3 of infertility cases are caused by women’s problems and another 1/3 of infertility problems are due to the man. Other causes are a mixture of female and male problems or unknown problems.
Causes of Infertility.. In Men In Women Abnormal sperm production and function Problems w/delivery of sperm Infection Birth defects Old age Scarring from a sexually transmitted disease, injury, or surgery. Cancer or Tumor Obesity Diabetes Excessive Exercise Poor nutrition or eating disorder Old age Ovarian Cysts
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) • The most common ART include: • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) • Electric or vibratory stimulation to achieve ejaculation • Surgical sperm aspiration • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) • Assisted Hatching
Complication of ART Treatments.. Multiple Pregnancies Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) Bleeding or Infection Low Birth Weight Birth Defects
If Infertility treatments don’t work.. • Options: • Adoption • Surrogacy
Adoption • Domestic Adoption • Open, Closed, and Semi-Open • Open: 0 to $2,500 • Closed: $4,000 to $30,000 • International Adoption • Things to consider when adopting internationally is race, gender, age, and medical needs. • About a quarter million children are adopted internationally • International adoptions begin around $15,000 and can exceed over $40,000.
Surrogacy Surrogacy is a form of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in which a woman conceives and carries a child in her uterus for another person or couple and then surrenders the child to that person or couple. Surrogate mother: conceives, carries and gives birth to a child for another person or couple. The surrogate mother agrees to hand over the child to that person or couple after the birth. The child’s genetic mother and genetic father or a donor provide the egg and sperm used to form the embryo. This embryo is then transferred to the womb of the surrogate mother.
Surrogacy Cont.. • Surrogacy is not common when compared with other forms of ART. A surrogacy arrangement could be considered if: • A woman is unable to become pregnant as she may have had a hysterectomy or is missing part of her uterus, uterine lining, ovaries or other parts of the genital tract. • A woman may have a health condition that makes pregnancy dangerous or she may not be able to carry a baby to term. • A couple in a male same-sex relationship may wish to have a child using their sperm. • A man may wish to have a child, but he does not have a partner. • A woman who has embryos in storage with her male partner dies and he wishes to use the embryos to have a child. • Many people argue that it is difficult to compare surrogacy with other reproductive methods such as egg donation, as the surrogate mother is undergoing the emotional, mental and physical experience of pregnancy. Surrogacy arrangements are complex and involve medical, emotional, financial and legal issues.
Ethical Issues Some couples find it difficult to stop treatment despite very bad prognosis, resulting in futile therapies. This may give ART providers a difficult decision of whether to continue or refuse treatment. There are several ethical issues associated with infertility and its treatment: ▪High-cost treatments are out of financial reach for some couples. ▪Debate over whether health insurance companies (e.g. in the US) should be required to cover infertility treatment. ▪Allocation of medical resources that could be used elsewhere ▪The legal status of embryos fertilized in vitro and not transferred in vivo. (See also Beginning of pregnancy controversy). ▪Pro-life opposition to the destruction of embryos not transferred in vivo.
Work Cited http://international.adoption.com/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/87467-international-adoption/ http://www.medicinenet.com/infertility/page2.htm http://www.news-medical.net/health/Infertility-Ethics.aspx http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002173/ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infertility/DS00310/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_adoption http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Surrogacy_the_issues?OpenDocument