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The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600

The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600. The Franco-Netherlands group (or just Netherlands or Franco-Flemish). After the Burgundians, many prominent musicians grew up and trained in present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands Traveled widely — especially to Italy.

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The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600

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  1. The Spread of New Musical Ideas and Practices to 1600

  2. The Franco-Netherlands group(or just Netherlands or Franco-Flemish) • After the Burgundians, many prominent musicians grew up and trained in present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands • Traveled widely — especially to Italy

  3. Johannes Ockeghem (ca. 1410–1497) • Singer, composer, director • Student of Du Fay, possibly also of Binchois • 1443 — choir of Notre Dame • 1445 — Burgundian chapel • Paris — court of the kings of France • Charles VII through Louis XI

  4. Ockeghem’s works • Twelve Masses — expanded on Du Fay’s style • cantus firmus type • complex styles — intricacies reflect lingering medievalism • Ten motets in new style • monotextual • equality of parts, no c.f. • panconsonance with imperfect consonances • through-composed • Twenty chansons — older cantilena type and newer style like motet

  5. Ockeghem’s style • Scoring • more homogeneous than preceding style • dark sound — dense • low pitch (composer sang bass), added bass part in clearly lower range than tenor • Rhythm — fluid • Melody — long phrases, little direction • Modal — mystical effect • Canon — “rule” for realizing several parts out of one — takes place of isorhythm for showing composer’s skill

  6. Josquin des Prez (ca. 1450–1521) • Regarded in the sixteenth century as culminator of period style, most skillful • "Josquin is master of the notes, which must express what he desires; other choral composers must do what the notes dictate." Martin Luther

  7. Josquin’s career • Netherlands native and died there, wide-ranging career • born in northern France • studied with Ockeghem • Travel to Italy — characteristic for Netherlands composers • Milan • cathedral 1459 • patronage of Sforza dukes 1474–1484 • Rome — Papal chapel 1486–1494 • Return to France — royal court 1501–1503 • Return to Italy — Ferrara, court of Duke Ercole 1503 • Netherlands — collegiate church of Condé

  8. Josquin’s works • Twenty Masses — conservative — often derivative material • cantus firmus • fuga based on paraphrase of preexisting melody • parody • soggetto cavato • Ninety-five motets — offered more freedom, textual inspiration than Mass Ordinary • more progressive than Masses • texts from liturgy, Bible, prayer • techniques — c.f., paraphrase, free • Ca. seventy secular pieces — most progressive • Netherlands style of chanson — like motet • generally more familiar style, rhythmic, syllabic • some in fixed forms, others free • four parts in fuga or familiar style, rather than older three-part texture • Italian — frottola — lighter • Some instrumental (untexted) pieces

  9. Secular music in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Amateur music-making Regional traditions

  10. Printing and the spread of literacy • Johannes Gutenberg (late fourteenth century to 1468) • invention of printing from movable type • Bible completed by 1455

  11. Music printing • Ottaviano Petrucci (1466–1539) • music printing from movable type • Harmonice musices odhecaton A (Venice, 1501)

  12. Music for social use • Rise of educated, literate class • Musical self-entertainment in the home • Musical participation as mark of social status and culture

  13. Netherlands chanson • Conservative — motet style • polyphonic — fuga • rhythmically fluid • Important publisher — Tilman Susato (ca. 1500–1560), Antwerp

  14. French chanson • Familiar style, rhythmic • Composers • Claudin de Sermisy (ca. 1490–1562) — court of Francis I, traveled to Italy with court • Clément Janequin (ca. 1485 to ca. 1560) — church musician, but known mostly for secular pieces • onomatopoeic pictorialisms — La Guerre, Le Chant des oiseaux • Publisher — Pierre Attaingnant (1494–1552), Paris — from 1528

  15. German Lied • Monophonic tradition of noble Minnesinger continued by trade-guild Meistersinger • Polyphonic pieces tend to older style • often canonic imitation • tenor-oriented • frequently incorporated existing monophonic song tunes • Composers • Heinrich Isaac (ca. 1450–1517) • Ludwig Senfl (ca. 1490–1543)

  16. Spanish villancico • Popular song or modeled on style of popular music • Rhythm — strongly marked, generally duple, but rather irregular • Texture — homorhythmic; three to four voices, early with text in highest part only, later more parts sung • Form — similar to earlier fixed forms • estribillo (refrain) — text abba or abab, music A = abcd • coplas (stanzas), separated by return of estribillo • mudanza — text cddc or cdcd, music BB = efef • vuelta — text abba or dbab, music A = abcd • Composer Juan del Encina (1468 to ca. 1530)

  17. Italy — the frottola • Vernacular poetry on amorous or satirical topics • Syllabic • Familiar style (top-voice orientation) • Strong, patterned rhythms • Simple, diatonic harmony • Strophic form • Representative composer, Marco (Marchetto) Cara (ca. 1465–1525)

  18. Italy — the madrigal • Sources • Netherlands-style polyphonic chanson • frottola • excellent poetry • Petrarch sonnets — from fourteenth century • Italian humanist poets of sixteenth century • Stages of development • Netherlands composers — simple, restrained style • ex., Jacques Arcadelt (1504–1567) • growing expressive devices, complexity • ex., Cipriano de Rore (1516–1565)

  19. Questions for discussion • Did national taste, the predilections of particular patrons, and the personalities of composers affect music more in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries than in earlier periods? • How did the printing of music affect musical style starting in the sixteenth century? Might it have had any negative effects on music? • In what ways did the relationship of music to words increase the vitality of music in the sixteenth century? What might music have lost in exchange?

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