Paraphrasing and Summarizing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Paraphrasing and Summarizing

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  1. Paraphrasing and Summarizing Accuracy is the key, but must be done in your own words

  2. Paraphrasing • It is a tool used in summarizing, but is not a summary writing itself. It is shorter • The aim is to re-present the information and concept in different words • Not always shorter than the original

  3. Things to note • Source information (page/paragraph #) • Avoid stringing together more than 3 words from the original (Plagiarism) • Avoid looking at the original when paraphrasing

  4. Example • “With few exceptions, nurse theorists have not elaborated upon the concept of environment, even though it is a central element in the nursing paradigm (person, health, nursing, and environment).” (Chopprian, 1986, p. 39)

  5. Sample Paraphrase • Although environment is the most important part of the nursing paradigm—which looks at the person, the health of the patient, the practice of nursing, and the environment—not many have discussed the environment in any detail. (Chopoorian, 1986)

  6. Summarizing • Use paraphrasing skills, as well as mapping/outlining skills • The aim is to re-write the original in a significantly shortened form • Aim for clarity, conciseness and use of your own words

  7. Tips • Read the article and draft up the outline: thesis and main points • Identify the title and the writer of the article in the first sentence of the summary • Identify the topic sentences throughout the article and use only the most important points • Do not provide supporting details of the main points • Write the summary (Lovrick, 2007, p. 42)

  8. Quotation • If the passage has less than 40 words, use quotation marks • proper indentation, but no quotation marks, if the passage has more than 40 words • Avoid too many quotations, and avoid stringing quotations together; need to show mastery of the material through paraphrasing/summarizing

  9. Use quotation only when • Really need the support from an authority • Need to back up the interpretation of a passage (paraphrasing and/or summarizing) • Need to show exactly what someone else has said (to show how different your view is) • Want to show (or can’t match) the power/elegance/beauty of the original (Reinking, 2010, p. 414)

  10. References • Chopoorian, T. J. (1986). Reconceptualizing the environment. In P. Moccia (Ed.), New approaches to theory development (pp. 39-54), New York: NLN. • Loverick, P. (2007). Focus on College Reading and Writing. Toronto: Thomson/Nelson. • Reinking, J., von der Osten, R., Cairns, S. A., & Fleming, R. (2010). Strategies for successful writing. 4th Can. ed. Toronto: Pearson.