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History of Project Management. Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D. Lee Baliton Chris Smith. Ancient History. Examples: The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.) The Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.) Exceptional planning Coordination Allocation Hundreds of thousands of workers

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history of project management

History of Project Management

Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D.Lee Baliton

Chris Smith

ancient history
Ancient History
  • Examples:
    • The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.)
    • The Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
  • Exceptional planning
  • Coordination
  • Allocation
  • Hundreds of thousands of workers
    • Paid and Slave labor.
ancient history3
Ancient History
  • Examples of ancient projects: The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.) and the Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
  • Exceptional planning
  • Coordination
  • Allocation
  • Hundreds of thousands of workers
    • Paid and Slave labor.
ancient history4
Ancient History
  • Examples of ancient projects: The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.) and the Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
  • Exceptional planning
  • Coordination
  • Allocation
  • Hundreds of thousands of workers
    • Paid and Slave labor.
ancient history5
Ancient History
  • Examples of ancient projects: The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.) and the Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
  • Exceptional planning
  • Coordination
  • Allocation
  • Hundreds of thousands of workers
    • Paid and Slave labor.
ancient history6
Ancient History
  • Examples of ancient projects: The Great Pyramids of Giza (2,550 B.C.) and the Great Wall of China (221 B.C. - 206 B.C.)
  • Exceptional planning
  • Coordination
  • Allocation
  • Hundreds of thousands of workers
    • Paid and Slave labor.
ancient history7
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history8
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history9
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history10
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history11
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history12
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling
ancient history13
Ancient History
  • Similar basic elements of project management:
    • Managing resources
    • Maintaining a schedule
    • Coordinating different groups
  • All are used in today’s modern project management practice
    • No evidence that they used optimal scheduling

Project Management

was not really the same

the early years late 19th century
The Early Years: Late 19th Century
  • PM emerged in the growing complexity of commerce
  • Seen in transportation, to manufacturing
  • Large scale projects caused large scale management decisions.
  • Example is the 1862 Transcontinental Railroad
the early years late 19th century15
The Early Years: Late 19th Century
  • PM emerged in the growing complexity of commerce
  • Seen in transportation, to manufacturing
  • Large scale projects
    • Example is the 1862 Transcontinental Railroad
the early years late 19th century16
The Early Years: Late 19th Century
  • PM emerged in the growing complexity of commerce
  • Seen in transportation, to manufacturing
  • Large scale projects
    • Example is the 1862 Transcontinental Railroad
the early years transcontinental railroad
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad
  • First large scale project management
  • Officially started after President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act
  • Authorized to build a railway and a telegraph line
  • Granted funding and land
  • Union Pacific to build west from Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east from Sacramento, CA
the early years transcontinental railroad18
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad
  • The Transcontinental Railroad considered first large scale project management
  • President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act
  • Authorized to build a railway and a telegraph line
  • Granted funding and land
  • Union Pacific to build west from Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east from Sacramento, CA
the early years transcontinental railroad19
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad
  • The Transcontinental Railroad considered first large scale project management
  • President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act
    • Railway
    • Telegraph line
  • Granted funding and land
  • Union Pacific to build west from Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east from Sacramento, CA
the early years transcontinental railroad20
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad
  • The Transcontinental Railroad considered first large scale project management
  • Officially started after President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act
  • Authorized to build a railway and a telegraph line
  • Granted funding and land
  • Union Pacific to build west from Omaha, NE; Central Pacific east from Sacramento, CA
the early years transcontinental railroad21
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad
  • The Transcontinental Railroad considered first large scale project management
  • Officially started after President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act
  • Authorized to build a railway and a telegraph line
  • Granted funding and land
    • Union Pacific
    • Central Pacific
the early years transcontinental railroad22
The Early Years: Transcontinental Railroad

Source: Wikipedia: Theodore Judah http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Judah

the early years late 19th century23
The Early Years: Late 19th Century
  • Mid-19th century business leaders faced with task of organizing labor in manufacturing and assembly
the early years late 19th century24
The Early Years: Late 19th Century
  • Mid-19th century business leaders faced with task of organizing labor in manufacturing and assembly

Coffee break

before and now

modern project management 1900 1950 henry gantt
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Henry Gantt
  • Modern project management
    • Construction
    • Engineering
    • Defense
  • Henry Gantt forefather of project management
  • Known for planning and control techniques
  • “Gantt” chart keeps track of project schedule.
modern project management 1900 1950 henry gantt26
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Henry Gantt
  • Modern project management came from construction, engineering, and defense
  • Henry Gantt forefather of project management
    • Known for planning and control techniques
    • “Gantt” chart keeps track of project schedule.

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 henry gantt27
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Henry Gantt
  • Modern project management came from construction, engineering, and defense
  • Henry Gantt forefather of project management
    • Known for planning and control techniques
    • “Gantt” chart keeps track of project schedule.

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 gantt chart
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Gantt chart

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 gantt chart29
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Gantt chart

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 gantt chart30
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Gantt chart

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 gantt chart31
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Gantt chart

Source Gantt Charts at http://www.ganttchart.com/Evolution.html

modern project management 1900 1950 frederic taylor
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Frederic Taylor
  • Work breakdown
  • Piecemeal work

Source: Fredrick Taylor entry in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor

modern project management 1900 1950 frederic taylor33
Modern Project Management 1900-1950 – Frederic Taylor

Source: Fredrick Taylor entry in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor

modern project management 1950 and beyond
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond
  • Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project management
  • Gantt charts and other informal techniques were used
  • Early 1950’s modern project management
modern project management 1950 and beyond35
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond
  • Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project management
  • Gantt charts and other informal techniques were used
  • Early 1950’s modern project management
modern project management 1950 and beyond36
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond
  • Pre-1950’s ad-hoc project management
  • Gantt charts and other informal techniques were used
  • Early 1950’s modern project management
modern project management 1950 and beyond pert
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - PERT
  • Two mathematical scheduling methods
  • “Program Evaluation Review Technique” or PERT
    • Analyzes the tasks
    • Identifies minimum amount of time
modern project management 1950 and beyond pert38
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - PERT
  • Two mathematical scheduling methods
  • “Program Evaluation Review Technique” or PERT
  • Analyzes the tasks
  • Identifies minimum amount of time

Edwin Booz

Source: The Story of Consulting: 1920-1939 http://www.agcon.com/HTML/site_content/page_episode_2_en.html

modern project management 1950 and beyond pert39
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - PERT
  • Two mathematical scheduling methods
  • “Program Evaluation Review Technique” or PERT
    • Analyzes the tasks
    • Identifies minimum amount of time

Edwin Booz

Source: The Story of Consulting: 1920-1939 http://www.agcon.com/HTML/site_content/page_episode_2_en.html

modern project management 1950 and beyond pert40
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - PERT

Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image%3APert_chart_colored.gif

modern project management 1950 and beyond pert41
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - PERT

Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image%3APert_chart_colored.gif

modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • A CPM diagram based on the following project elements:
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies between the activities.
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm43
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • A CPM diagram based on the following project elements:
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies between the activities.
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm44
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • CPM diagram
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies between the activities.
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm45
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • CPM diagram
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies between the activities.
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm46
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • CPM diagram
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies among the activities
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm47
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • The “Critical Path Method” developed for plant maintenance projects
  • Algorithm for scheduling project activities.
  • A CPM diagram based on the following project elements:
    • List of all activities required for project
    • Length of time for each activity
    • Dependencies among the activities
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm48
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM
  • CPM diagram of a construction project
modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm49
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM

The blue arrows are

tasks that consume

resources

modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm50
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM

The blue arrows also

have the time required

to complete each task

modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm51
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM

The dashed arrow

indicates the sequence

for each activity.

modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm52
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM

In this example, the roofline

must first be fitted before

the roof timbers can be fitted.

modern project management 1950 and beyond cpm56
Modern Project Management 1950 and beyond - CPM

Critical Path Method allowed the selection of a path that would minimize the time to end of the project. This allowed project managers, for the first time, to optimize the sequence of scheduling project tasks

this lecture continues in a separate set of slides

This lecture continues in a separate set of slides

Part two of this lecture focuses on recent history of project management