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HTML5 and CSS3 Illustrated Unit D: Formatting Text with CSS
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  1. HTML5 and CSS3 IllustratedUnit D: Formatting Text with CSS

  2. Objectives • Assess Web fonts • Declare a font family • Declare font sizes • Implement bold and italics HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  3. Objectives (continued) • Change font colors • Change background colors • Use special characters • Provide alternative style sheets HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  4. Assessing Web Fonts • When formatting Web pages with different fonts, limited by fonts available on users’ machines • Makes it a challenge to ensure that Web pages appear consistently on different computers HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  5. Assessing Web Fonts (continued) • Strategies for implementing fonts consistently: • Specifying multiple font families • Font stack: List of font families in order of preference, separated by commas • Specifying a generic font family • Generic font families: grouping of font families according to shared characteristics • Can be added to end of font stack HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  6. Assessing Web Fonts (continued) • Strategies for implementing fonts consistently (continued): • Implementing downloadable fonts • User agent downloads and applies fonts not installed on user’s computer • Upload file containing elements of the font family to Web publishing location or reference licensed downloadable font • Add @font-face rule to style sheet • Indicates font name and location of necessary files HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  7. Assessing Web Fonts (continued) • Generic font families HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  8. Declaring a Font Family • font-family property: Used to specify fonts in CSS • Value is font stack that includes font family name(s) and ends with generic font family name • Can be included in any style rule to apply to elements selected in that rule • Downloadable font family name can be included in regular font stack • @font-face rule must be added HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  9. Declaring a Font Family (continued) • Common @font-face descriptors HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  10. Declaring Font Sizes • font-size property: used to specify font size of an element • Can specify size in many different units • Most widely supported are percent and em • Useful to specify font-sizes in style sheet to standardize visual display of headings in different browsers • Specify font size in em so that remains proportional to rest of Web page HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  11. Declaring Font Sizes (continued) • Font size properties in style sheet and resulting presentation HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  12. Implementing Bold and Italics • Can use CSS to format text to be bold and/or italic • font-weight property: used to make text bold • font-style property: used to add italics • span element: generic HTML element free of semantic meaning • Used to isolate specific section of a larger element • Include id attribute to create style rules HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  13. Implementing Bold and Italics (continued) • Span element added HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  14. Implementing Bold and Italics (continued) • Results of span element and bold and italic style rule HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  15. Changing Font Colors • color property: used to specify the color of text and other HTML elements • Four ways to specify colors: • Name • hexadecimal format • rgb format • hsl format HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  16. Changing Font Colors (continued) • Comparison of CSS color systems HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  17. Changing Background Colors • You can use the background property to change the background color of HTML elements • Particularly important when working with text elements • Helps maintain contrast between text and background • Can use any of the color definition systems to set background colors HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  18. Using Background Colors (continued) • Changes to font and background colors HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  19. Using Special Characters • Some characters cannot be entered directly into HTML text • They may be misinterpreted as computer instructions • Character reference: formatted codes that represent characters in the HTML character set • Have the format &code; • Numeric references exist for all characters • Abbreviation references for some characters HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  20. Using Special Characters (continued) • Important character references HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  21. Providing Alternative Style Sheets • You may need to style a web document differently on different devices • Different resolution, screen size • Use media attribute of link element to specify which device should use the style sheet • May have multiple link elements for different media HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  22. Providing Alternative Style Sheets (continued) • Values for the link element media attribute HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  23. Summary • It is important to implement fonts so that they will be displayed consistently on different user agents • Font stacks are declared using the font-family property • span element: generic element used to isolate a portion of another element • Used to format the font of specific portion HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  24. Summary (continued) • Different aspects of font can be set using CSS properties: • font-size property: set the font size • font-weight property: make font bold • font-style property: make font italic • In CSS colors can be specified using names, rgb, hexadecimal, or hsl • color property: sets font color • background property: sets background color HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete

  25. Summary (continued) • Character references are used to identify characters that may be misinterpreted as computer instructions • Have the format &code; • You can specify different style sheets for different user agents • media attribute of link element HTML 5 and CSS 3 – Illustrated Complete