What do you already know about poverty? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What do you already know about poverty?

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  1. What do you already know about poverty?

  2. What would you like to know about poverty?

  3. Eric Jensen’s definition of poverty. . . Poverty is a chronic and debilitating condition that results from multiple adverse synergistic risk factors and affects the mind, body and soul.

  4. The four primary risk factors affecting families living in poverty: Emotional and social challengesAcute and Chronic Stressors Cognitive lagsHealth & Safety Issues

  5. ContrastingExperiences… When compared to their middle or upper income classmates, how are childrenfrom poverty different?

  6. Kids “download” the negatives ofchaos, disharmony,poor relationships,foul language,poor manners, and weak vocabulary just as quicklyand just asautomaticallyas they would any positive orenrichment input.

  7. The four primary risk factors affecting families living in poverty: Emotional and social challengesAcute and Chronic Stressors Cognitive lagsHealth & Safety Issues

  8. Kids from poverty get less “attunement” time attunement is the establishment of a positive, reciprocal, relationship with theprimary caregiver. This “quality time” provides the basis for learning the non hard-wired socially appropriate emotions.

  9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URpuKgKt9kg

  10. Understand that children raised in poverty are more likely to display: • “Acting-out behaviours. • Impatience and impulsivity. • Gaps in politeness and social graces. • A more limited range of behavioural responses. • Less empathy for others’ misfortunes.

  11. Emotional Support A mother in poverty is less likely to provide the emotional support needed for proper developmental growth when she’s stressed about her own health, safety, bill-paying, hunger and housing prospects.

  12. Why Positive Emotions Matter Of all the things researchers have discovered about the value of quality relationships, one of the most surprising is that they are strong mediators of stress. Good relationships diffuse stress and make your life easier.

  13. Emotional Impact of Low SES Children of poverty were 50% morelikely to experience physical neglect and 80% morelikely to report sexual abuse than those of middle to upper SES-- verystressful to them! (Hussey, Chang, & Kotch, 2006)

  14. Teachers who criticize, hold negative attitudes and use sarcasm as classroom discipline will activate the fear and stress areas of the student’s brain This activation alters the student’s ability to think and learn.

  15. You can’t change what’s in your students’ bank account, but you can change what’s in their emotional account.

  16. E-A-C-H Kid Deserves Better Emotional SupportAcute/Chronic Stress Cognitive StimulationHealth & Safety Issues

  17. Chronic Stress Effects… T or F? 1. Creates emotional problems (T or F)(Burgess et al. 1995) 2. Lowers IQ, reading scores (T or F)(Delaney-Black, et al. 2002) 3. Causes drastic memory loss (T or F)(Lupien, et al. 2001) 4. Shortens dendrites (T or F) (Cook and Wellman, 2004), (Brown, et al. 2005) 5. Causes neuron death (T or F) (De Bellis, et al. 2001) 6. Fosters inappropriate attachments (T or F)(Schore, A. 2002)

  18. Stress and Distress • stress (on/off)is healthy for us. • distress (chronic) is toxic to our brain and body • low SES children are exposed to: 1) more stressors, 2) more intense stressors, 3) longer lasting stressors, and 4) have fewer coping skills than their higher SES counterparts. Evans, G.W., Kim P. (2007) Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

  19. The Impact of Distress on Your Students is… Do you actually know? Here’s what the data says…

  20. Effects of Allostatic Load

  21. Cumulative Risk Factors:More Stress = More Impulsivity Low SES kids are more likely to act impulsively and to struggle when asked to defer gratification. Chronic or acute stress shortens the time horizon.

  22. Instability= Stressors Children in poor families:• move twice as often• get evicted 5X as much (Federman, et al. 1996) • Experience more chronic stress andup to 35% more daily hassles(Attar et al. 1994) • Live in crowded homes (3X more likely) (US Census Bureau, 2000)

  23. “Great theory! But what do we do?” Those in poverty typically have “dysregulated”stress response systems.You must: 1) give kids appropriately increasing amounts of control over their lives at school and 2) teach coping skills.

  24. E-A-C-H Kid Deserves Better Emotional Support Acute/Chronic Stress Cognitive StimulationHealth & Safety Issues

  25. Environments Power the Brain Growth • The physical environment needs to be safe, varied and complex. • The language must be interactive, complex and continuous • The cognitive environment needs variety, richness and increasing complex physical movement.

  26. How Much Can Environments Affect the Developing Brain? Plenty!

  27. Cognitive Stimulation and Poverty Kids need more thanexploratory opportunities They need novel, environments with variety of human (not-electronic) activities Television is unfriendlyto the developing brain

  28. Toddlers from middle and upper income families actually used 
more words in talking to their parents than low SES mothers used in talking to their own children. Language Influences Cognition (Bracey, 2006)

  29. “Extras” for Learning Poor families cannot afford these options: quality child care stimulating toys recreational books team uniform costs school supplies team travel costs scouts or summer camp private music/dance lessons (Posner & Vandell, 1999; Sherman, 1994).

  30. Common Factors in the Lives of Low SES Kids!

  31. Areas include those responsible for working memory, impulse regulation, visuospatial, language and cognitive conflict Brains of Lower SES are Different than those from Higher SES Noble KG, Norman MF, Farah MJ (2005) Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Dev Sci Jan;8(1):74-87

  32. The 5 Most Likely Brain Disorders for Low SES Kids Stress (GAD, LH, PTSD or Depression) AD/HD (and ADD) Learning delays Attachment Dyslexia

  33. “Great theory! But what do we do?” Those in poverty typically have under-developed and under-performing brains.To be effective, school must provide enriched skill building targeting executive functions.

  34. E-A-C-H Kid Deserves Better Emotional Support Acute/Chronic Stress Cognitive StimulationHealth & Safety Issues

  35. Health Issues Affecting the Developing Brain Children born to low-income families are more likely to: • be premature • be low in birth weight • have other disabilities such as asphyxia and fetal alcohol syndrome • receive poor prenatal care (Bradley and Corwyn, 2002). (Bradley 2002).

  36. Effects of Lead on Neurogenesis Gilbert, et al., 2005 Control (on L) Exposed (on R)After 4 weeks of Pb exposure, note significant differences in new cell production

  37. So what do we do?” Those in poverty typically have exposure to unsafe and unhealthy living conditions.School absolutely must be a safe and healthy place. Enrichment can mitigate the toxic effects on the brain.

  38. How Does the Human Brain Respond to Poverty? It depends. With relationships, hope and coping skills, success is likely. For the rest of those from poverty, the most likely outcome is: Detachment (helplessness)OR Anger (stress expressed)

  39. Brains of Poverty Will Be Different! The good news is… Brains are also designed to adapt to positive experiences