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Production of Human Proteins. Avery Grant and Eliza Tarwater. Diabetes- Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolic disease Cause: lack of insulin Treatment: insulin injection. Treatment. Older. Newer. Pancreatic tissue from pigs and cattle Expensive Side effects Often contaminated.

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production of human proteins
Production of Human Proteins

Avery Grant and Eliza Tarwater

diabetes type 1 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes- Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Metabolic disease
    • Cause: lack of insulin
    • Treatment: insulin injection



  • Pancreatic tissue from pigs and cattle
    • Expensive
    • Side effects
    • Often contaminated
  • GM Human Insulin
    • Genetically modified bacteria and yeast
    • Since 1980s
    • Greatly improved management of type 1 Diabetes
synthesis of human insulin using recombinant dna technology
Synthesis of Human Insulin Using Recombinant DNA Technology
  • All involve
    • putting a human gene into a plasmid (which can either be a yeast or bacteria)
    • secreting a protein which insulin can be derived from
step 1
  • Identify and Synthesize a human gene
  • Insulin:
    • Small protein
    • 51 amino acids- A&B
    • polypeptide chains
    • STEP: Chemically synthesize DNA chains that have nucleotide sequences for A and B “genes”
step 2
  • Insert the Synthetic DNA into Plasmids
  • A and B nucleotide sequences individually put into gene for bacterial enzyme
  • Makes bacteria produce insulin
step 3
  • Put Plasmid in Bacterial Cell
  • Recombinant plasmids introduced to E. coli
  • Requires millions of copies of bacteria w/ plasmid of insulin gene
  • Insulin expressed when gene replicates with B-galactosidase
  • Cell undergoes mitosis
step 4
  • Make functional protein
  • A and B chains extracted from B-galactosidase and purified
  • Mixed together
  • Reconnected in disulfide cross
  • Then made suitable for injection
other human proteins made with genetic engineering
Other Human Proteins Made with Genetic Engineering
  • Erythropoetin- treats anaemia in kidney failure patients
  • Human Growth Hormone- used to treat pituitary dwarfism
  • Insulin- Diabetes
  • Interferon- can treat Hepatitis B and C, some cancers, and MS
  • Factor VIII- treat hemophilia caused by lack of factor VIII
factor viii ryan white
Factor VIII- Ryan White
  • Hemophiliac who got AIDS from a blood transfusion
    • Blood donation has risks - HIV and hepatitis
    • So, GM bacteria replaced blood donation for hemophiliacs
    • Factor VIII produced synthetically
      • Helps clot blood (factor)
human growth hormone
Human Growth Hormone
  • Pituitary Dwarfism- treated by Human Growth Hormone
    • Before: extracted from pituitary glands of corpses
      • Some problems
        • Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD)
          • Brain disease
    • Now: GE bacteria
    • Injection