chapter 25 challenges and extensions n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 25: Challenges and Extensions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 25: Challenges and Extensions

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Chapter 25: Challenges and Extensions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 25: Challenges and Extensions. Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents – Munindar P. Singh and Michael N. Huhns, Wiley, 2005. Highlights of this Chapter. Trust Ethics Coherence Benevolence Managing Privacy Key Challenges and Recommendations.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Chapter 25: Challenges and Extensions


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 25 challenges and extensions
Chapter 25:Challenges and Extensions

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents– Munindar P. Singh and Michael N. Huhns, Wiley, 2005

highlights of this chapter
Highlights of this Chapter
  • Trust
  • Ethics
  • Coherence
  • Benevolence
  • Managing Privacy
  • Key Challenges and Recommendations

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

when would you trust a service
When Would you Trust a Service?
  • Has the right capabilities
  • Understands your needs
  • Follows legal contracts where specified
  • Supports its organization or society
  • Follows an ethics
  • Behaves rationally

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

ethical abstractions
Ethical Abstractions
  • Deontological ethics
  • Teleological ethics
  • Consequentialism
  • Duties
  • Obligations
  • Applying ethics

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

motivation
Motivation

Specifying agents who would act appropriately

  • Distinguishing right from wrong
  • Relates to legal, social, economic considerations

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

right and good
Right and Good
  • Right: that which is right in itself
  • Good: that which is good or valuable for someone or for some end

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

deontological vs teleological
Deontological vs. Teleological
  • Deontological theories
    • Right trumps good
      • Being good does not mean being right
      • Ends do not justify means
  • Teleological theories
    • Good trumps right
      • Something is right only if it maximizes the good
      • Ends justify means

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

deontological theories
Deontological Theories
  • Constraints
    • Negatively formulated
    • Narrowly framed
      • E.g., lying is not not-telling-the-truth
    • Narrowly directed
      • At an agent’s specific action and its explicitly identified consequences
      • Not at the action by other means
      • Not at implicit, even known, consequences

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

deontological double effect
Deontological Double Effect

Distinguish intentional effects from foreseen consequences

  • An action is not wrong unless the agent explicitly intends for it to do wrong
    • Legitimizes inaction even when inaction has predictable (but unintended) effects
    • Shut down bank ATM for diagnostics even if that might leave someone without cash

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

kant s categorical imperative
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
  • Universalizability: Acceptable outcomes if everyone applies the same “maxim”
    • False promising is unacceptable, because if everyone did so, society would not function
    • Respect for others (no lying or coercion) so they can consent
    • An agent “maxim” is uncertainly inferred from its actions

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

teleological theories
Teleological Theories
  • Based on how actions satisfy various goals, not their intrinsic rightness
    • Comparison-based
    • Preference-based

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

consequentialism
Consequentialism

An agent should promote whatever values it adopts

  • Actions are instrumental in the promotion
  • Honor the values only if doing so promotes them

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

utilitarianism
Utilitarianism

A moral action is one that is useful

  • Must be good for someone
  • Good may be interpreted as
    • Pleasure: hedonism
    • Preference satisfaction: microeconomic rationalism (assumes each agent knows its preferences)
    • Interest satisfaction: welfare utilitarianism
    • Aesthetic ideals: ideal utilitarianism

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

prima facie duties
Prima Facie Duties
  • What agents need to decide actions are
      • Not just universal principles (each can be stretched)
      • Not just consequences
      • But also a regard for their promises and duties
  • Agents have prima facie duties to help others, keep promises, repay kindness,...
      • No ranking among these
      • Highly defeasible conclusions, e.g., steal food to feed kids

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

obligations
Obligations

Obligations are

  • For deontological theories, those that are impermissible to omit
  • For teleological theories, those that most promote good
  • For contract-based theories, those that an agent accepts

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

asimov s laws of robotics
Asimov’s Laws of Robotics

0. A robot may not injure humanity or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. [Added after the following more famous laws]

1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

applying ethics 1
Applying Ethics: 1

The ethical theories are theories

    • Of justification
    • Not of deliberation
  • An agent can decide what basic “value system” to use under any approach

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

applying ethics 2
Applying Ethics: 2
  • The deontological theories (“right”)
    • Are narrower
    • Ignore practical considerations
    • But are meant as incomplete constraints (out of all the right actions, the agent can choose any)
  • The teleological theories (“good”)
    • Are broader
    • Include practical considerations
    • But leave fewer options for the agent, who must always choose the best available alternative

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

applying ethics 3
Applying Ethics: 3
  • The ethical approaches
    • Are single-agent in orientation
    • Implicitly encode other agents
  • An explicitly multiagent ethics would be an interesting topic for study

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

an agent should act
An Agent Should Act
  • Benevolently
    • Seeking the welfare of others
  • Rationally, i.e., maximizing utility
    • Consistent with its model of itself
  • Predictably
    • Consistent with its model of others’ beliefs about it

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

benevolence a mattress in the road
Benevolence: “A Mattress in the Road”

Who will stop to pick it up?

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

example information sharing
Example: Information Sharing
  • Benevolent agents sharing information they have retrieved, filtered, and refined
  • Utilitarian variant: Access to shared information based on contributions to it

Collective Store

World Wide Web...

Query Agents

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

challenges and recommendations
Challenges and Recommendations

Respect autonomy and heterogeneity

  • Design rules for ontologies, business transactions, protocols, organizations, …
  • Security and trust: difficult given openness
  • Scalability
  • Quality of service: application-specific and incorporating user needs
  • User-centered requirements analysis and design

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

chapter 25 summary
Chapter 25 Summary
  • SOC is about building systems in open environments
  • SOC systems rely upon trust among components and people
    • Technical work on trust: in progress
  • Can ethics inspire abstractions for SOC?
    • More responsive to human needs?
    • Easier to govern?

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns

to probe further
To Probe Further
  • Journals
    • IEEE Internet Computing, http://computer.org/internet
    • Journal of Web Semantics
    • IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
  • DAI-List-Request@engr.sc.edu
  • Conferences
    • Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems
    • Business Process Managment
    • Semantic Web Conference (ISWC)
    • Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC)
    • Service Computing (SCC)
    • Web Services (ICWS)
    • World-Wide Web (WWW)

Service-Oriented Computing: Semantics, Processes, Agents - Munindar Singh and Michael Huhns