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NPA: Business Improvement Techniques. Contributing to the Application of Continuous Improvement Techniques (Kaizen). Aim of the Unit.

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npa business improvement techniques

NPA: Business Improvement Techniques

Contributing to the Application of Continuous Improvement Techniques (Kaizen)

aim of the unit
Aim of the Unit

This Unit — Contributing to the Application of Continuous Improvement Techniques (Kaizen) — is designed to help you undertake improvement activities in your workplace and produce measurable benefits. It involves contributing to the planning of the continuous improvement process, carrying out activities to make improvements and recording business benefits.

objectives of the unit
Objectives of the Unit

To introduce:

  • the ideas of value and waste
  • the basic principles and benefits of performance measurement and process diagnosis
  • the use of key performance measures and process diagnostic techniques to drive continuous improvement
learning outcomes
Learning outcomes

After completing the Unit, you should:

  • understand what is meant by:
    • value and waste
    • the Eight Wastes
    • performance measurement
    • process diagnosis
  • understand the importance of effective performance measurement and process diagnosis
  • understand how performance measures and process diagnosis techniques can be used to monitor process performance and identify areas for improvement
kaizen
Kaizen
  • Kaizen is a Japanese word meaning improvement.
  • Kaizen calls for never-ending, continuous improvement.
  • It involves everyone — managers and workers alike.
  • It focuses on process improvement.
kaizen principles
Kaizen principles
  • Quality begins with the customer.
  • Customer needs are always changing andexpectations are rising, so continuous improvement is required.

Everyone is involved:

Top management: establish the strategy, allocate resources, put systems, procedures and structures in place

Middle managers: monitor performance, ensure employees are educated to use the appropriate tools

Supervisors: maintain the rate of suggestions, coach team members

Employees: make suggestions, learn new jobs, use the tools, participate!

plan do check act
Plan-Do-Check-Act

What needs to be

done to improve?

Does it work?

Implement and

standardise

Try a solution on

a small scale

the three elements of work
The three elements of work

Value adding

Maximise any work that changes the nature or shape of the work.

Non-value adding

Minimise any work that is unnecessary under current conditions, and does not increase the value of the work.

Waste

Eliminate all unnecessary work.

eliminating waste
Eliminating waste
  • The wastes apply to all sectors.
  • The wastes relate to productivity.
  • By reducing waste we work smarter rather than harder.
  • The opposite of waste is value adding. If an activity does not add value it could be reduced or eliminated.
  • You can remember the wastes by asking, ‘Who is TIM P. WOOD?’
the eight wastes
The Eight Wastes

Transport

Unnecessary movement of materials, products or information.

Every move adds time to a process, and world-class organisations are passionate about reducing time.

Examples:

  • materials constantly being collected or delivered
  • the actual or virtual chasing of information ('Who has that expenses figure? Marcy? Okay I'll ask Marcy… Marcy says Hector has it...’
the eight wastes1
The Eight Wastes

Inventory

Any work-in-progress that is in excess of what is required to produce for the customer.

Inventory tends to increase lead times, prevents rapid identification of problems and increases space, thereby discouraging communication.

Examples:

  • physical piles of forms (eg in inboxes)
  • physical materials around the factory
  • people standing in line waiting to be served
the eight wastes2
The Eight Wastes

Motion

Needless movement of people.

If people have to bend, pickup, stretch, etc, there is a higher risk of accidents, and ultimately, quality and productivity suffer.

Examples:

  • walking between offices or to equipment
  • constantly switching between different computer domains or drives
  • bending or stretching to perform the task
the eight wastes3
The Eight Wastes

Poor utilisation of knowledge

Any instance where human potential is not capitalised on. This requires clear communication, commitment and support.

Examples:

  • not acting on a suggestion for improvement
  • putting people in roles that don’t require them to use their special skills and attributes
the eight wastes4
The Eight Wastes

Waiting

Any delay between when one process step/activity ends and the next begins.

Customers do not appreciate being kept waiting.

Examples:

  • waiting for information
  • machines or people waiting to carry out the work
the eight wastes5
The Eight Wastes

Overproduction

Production of goods or service outputs beyond what is needed for immediate use/adding more value to a service or product than customers want or will pay for.

Overproduction leads to storage time and costs, risk of obsolescence, delay in detecting defects.

Examples:

  • overpurchasing office supplies, just in case
  • adding more information than is necessary to a report
the eight wastes6
The Eight Wastes

Over-processing

Using processes that are not quality-capable/creating overly elaborate solutions where a simple one would suffice.

Over-processing leads to increased chances of defects, longer lead times, transport etc.

Examples:

  • processes that involve too many approval steps and sign-offs
  • excessive distribution lists
  • using a sledgehammer to crack a nut
the eight wastes7
The Eight Wastes

Defects

Any aspect of the service that does not conform to customer needs.

Their impact may be felt further downstream from where they occurred. Defects need to be traced back. They cost money.

Examples:

  • missing a deadline
  • a bug in the website
  • faulty goods
performance measurement introduction
Performance measurement — introduction

What is a performance measurement?

Why is it important to measure performance of a business, activity or process?

performance measurement what is it
Performance measurement – what is it?

The practice of measuring how well an activity, process or system is performing and comparing the measurement to the planned level of performance.

‘It is difficult to manage what you cannot measure.’

why measure
Why measure?

provides factual data rather than ‘gut feeling’ or ‘hearsay’

shows current performance

reveals how well the process is operating to support the requirements of the customer

identifies and helps prioritise opportunities for improvement

enables measurable improvement targets to be set

helps informed decisions to be made

puts the ‘stake-in-the-ground’

enables the process or business to benchmark

provides for a fair measurement system

provides the basis for accepted accountability

what is benchmarking
What is benchmarking?

A reference or measurement standard that is used for comparison.

Internally:

  • acting as the base/starting point of an improvement process so that improvement can be assessed and the methods to be used to raise the benchmark addressed
  • acting as the basis for comparison between departments and/or companies in a group

Externally:

  • for comparing the performance of the organisation with that of other organisations, to enable:
    • specific competitor-to-competitor comparisons.
    • the basis of comparison of similar functions, services or products with the industry in general, or to industry leaders
    • comparison of common business processes or functions, irrelevant of the industry concerned
the benefits of benchmarking
The benefits of benchmarking
  • Benchmarking forms the basis for setting realistic targets for improvement and action plans to achieve those targets.
  • Benchmarks give indications of the change in needs of the internal and external customers.
  • Benchmarks give the starting point for continuous improvement, and allow realistic (small) targets to be set.
  • Benchmarking allows assessment of how improvements are being made.
  • Where critical/shortfalls are identified, benchmarking allows priorities to be established.
  • In addition to helping to define how the organisation is performing, benchmarking can help in setting of performance standards and can be helpful in identifying new ways of doing things.
measurement and data analysis1
Measurement and data analysis

only measure the things that matter

aligned to the effective and efficient delivery of what the customer requires

quantitative, objective measures wherever possible

rapid and clear indication of performance

use performance measurement and data analysis to drive, review and manage continuous improvement

effective feedback of measurement data

fair measurement system

Characteristics of an effective measurement system

measurement and data analysis2
Measurement and data analysis

Measures can either be:

Quantitative

Qualitative

Subject to personal judgement/ perception

The quantity can actually be measured

what do customers want
What do customers want?

What do you want when buying a meal?

  • tasty food
  • nice presentation
  • good value
  • cheap
  • no waiting
  • polite service
  • doesn’t poison you

Quality

Cost

Delivery

Health and safety

what do customers want1
What do customers want?

What do clients want from a project?

Quality

Cost

Delivery

Health and safety

  • free from defects
  • on budget
  • on time
  • no accidents
measures used in industry sectors
Measures used in industry sectors

The seven QCDS & R ‘operational’ measures

Measures are commonly classified into four or five categories:

slide29

Not right first time (NRFT)

A measure of the ability to deliver the defined specification of works

Quantity of defects

Not right first time

=

Agreed unit of measure

Example: a new build housing project measures the number of defects found in all properties being worked on for a given time period. The total number of defects measured was 112, in 22 properties.

Therefore:

The average not right first time = = 5.1 defects per house

112

22

slide30

Achievement of plan

A measure of whether planned activities have started on the planned date and taken the planned duration, and the accuracy of the plan

No. of planned activities

No. of incorrect activities

Achievement of plan

x 100%

=

No. of planned activities

slide31

Planned activities completer (PAC)

  • A measure of the percentage of planned activities completed as promised at a weekly planning level

No. of planned activities

No. of incomplete activities

Planned activities complete

x 100%

=

No. of planned activities

slide32

Productivity

A measure ofthe ratio between work completed and the person hours used to complete the work

Work completed

People productivity

=

Number of person hours worked

Example calculation:

Productivity of two gangs doing mechanical first fix in a construction project

Gang A completes six rooms per week with a three person gang.

Gang B completes five rooms per week with a two person gang.

slide33

Budget adherence

A financial measure of actual cost against planned cost to date

Cumulative planned cost

Cumulative actual cost

Budget adherence

x 100%

=

Cumulative planned cost

slide34

Health and safety

  • A measure of the organisation’s safety performance. Examples of measures include:
    • accidents recorded within a given time period
    • number of days without reported accidents
    • reportable accidents
    • near misses or non-reportable accidents
    • number of accidents relative to number of people on-site
  • Additional measures are used to help define the level of health and safety competence on-site, and these include:
    • percentage of people on-site with health and safety qualifications
    • percentage of people on-site who have been site-inducted
slide35

Customer satisfaction

  • This is a qualitative measure.
  • With qualitative measures come subjectivity.
  • To ensure fairness and consistency, a rating scale is often used.
display of data
It is important to display data in a form that is easy to see and understand.

To be useful, collected data needs to be:

analysed and displayed in a timely manner

clear and concise

to a recognised standard that everyone knows

Common ways to display data include:

trend charts

bar charts or histograms

pie charts

Pareto charts

Display of data
display of data1
Display of data

A chart used to show performance over a time period. It is possible to track the trend of the recorded data and to compare performance against a defined target.

The trend chart

slide38
A chart used to display the quantity or frequency that a particular measured factor occurs within the measurement period.

Quantity could be the number of times it occurs and/or the associated cost.

Data period: 19–23 Mar 07

Number of defects per property

Sample size: nine properties

Date drawn: 26 Mar 07

Drawn by: J Smith

14

12

10

8

Quantity

TARGET

6

4

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Property number

Display of data

The bar chart

slide39
An easily recognisable way to show the number of factors that contribute to the item being measured and the quantity or percentage proportion that each factor contributes to the whole.

Display of data

The pie chart

display of data2
Display of data

The Pareto chart shows the related items that are embodied within the measured quantity, ranked in order of magnitude. Additionally, the proportion that each factor contributes to the measured quantity is shown as a cumulative percentage line.

The Pareto chart

the data trail
The data trail

Using measured data to direct focus for improvement

What makes up the 50% defects?

What contributes to the radiator defect problem?

root cause analysis five whys
Root cause analysis — Five Whys
  • Why am I always late for work?

Because the bus that I get takes the long route.

  • Why?

Because I usually miss the direct bus.

  • Why?

Because I leave the house late.

  • Why?

Because it takes so long to get ready.

  • Why?

Because I can never decide what to wear.

root cause analysis fishbone
Root cause analysis — fishbone
  • used to brainstorm the possible causes of a problem
  • known as a Fishbone, Cause and Effect or Ishikawa diagram
  • the problem is stated at the head of the fish
  • causes are stated under a number of headings on the bones
  • some headings you could use:
    • Men/Machines/Methods/Materials/Measures/Mother

Nature

    • Places/Procedures/People/Policies
    • Surroundings/Suppliers/Systems/Skills
standardisation through sops
Standardisation through SOPs
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are used to make sure that the fixed problem remains permanently fixed.
  • They ensure that the quality procedures are maintained.
  • SOPs can be used as training aids to ensure mistakes are not repeated.
how to produce a sop
How to produce a SOP

Inconsistent process

  • Capture current way of working through example:
    • work observation of more than one process expert
    • collated statements from more than one process expert
  • Identify key points pertaining to safety, quality and ease.
  • Where work methods differ, agree the current best method of working.
  • Document agreed method in the Standard Operation Sheet (SOS).
  • Deploy and monitor as appropriate.
how to produce a sop1
How to produce a SOP

Consistent process

  • Conduct a Work and Waste activity on current process.
  • Identify improvements.
  • Incorporate improvements to existing Standard Operating Sheet (SOS).
  • If current SOS does not exist, capture current way of working, incorporating improvements into the SOS.
  • Agree and trial the improved process.
  • Deploy and monitor improved ways of working.
  • Agree next review of the SOS.
summary
Summary
  • What is the definition of value or value added?
  • What is the PDCA Cycle?
  • What are the Eight Wastes?
  • Why is performance measurement important to a Kaizen activity?
  • Why is it important to solve the root cause of a problem?