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Nonlinear Pedagogy: Implications for Verbal Instruction, Feedback and Practice in TGfU. Ian Renshaw & Keith Davids. Introduction. Representative design of practice tasks Why learning could be facilitated by a more “hands-off” approach

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nonlinear pedagogy implications for verbal instruction feedback and practice in tgfu

Nonlinear Pedagogy: Implications for Verbal Instruction, Feedback and Practice in TGfU

Ian Renshaw & Keith Davids

introduction
Introduction

Representative design of practice tasks

Why learning could be facilitated by a more “hands-off” approach

The skill Interjection (Bunker & Thorpe, 1982; Thorpe, 2004)

Augmented verbal information as a temporary informational constraint (instructional constraint)

Feedback processes

Discovery learning

Manipulating constraints

Summary

representative tasks
Representative Tasks…
  • Practice design that is representative of competition demands will lead to transfer of skills between practice and performance environments (Brunswick, 1956).
  • A strength of the TGfU approach is that it enables learners to practise in a managed environment with all key information sources present.
practice that lacks representative design can lead to development of less functional movements
Practice that lacks representative design can lead to development of less functional movements.

Bowling machines:

Changes in timing and co-ordination

Limits attunement to key information sources (e.g. the hand and the arm (Muller et al, 2007)).

a more hands off approach to learning
A more ‘hands-off’ approach to learning…

Individuals are unique and need to learn via exploration to find the best solutions for them.

A learner-centred approach

Natural learning is typically implicit (Beek, 2000)

Promote independent learning through individual’s discovery and exploitation of constraints.

Pedagogy needs to facilitate this process

the skill interjection bunker thorpe 1982 thorpe 2004
The Skill Interjection (Bunker & Thorpe, 1982; Thorpe, 2004)
  • Role of the Teacher:
  • Instruct? Drill? Show?

or Stimulate & Facilitate?

  • Key questions:
    • Are the key information sources present?
    • Are individuals able to explore and find their own optimal solution?
verbal instruction is a temporary informational constraint
Verbal Instruction is a Temporary Informational Constraint
  • Directs the learner’s search
  • Can act positively or negatively
feedback it s all in the big toe
Feedback: It’s all in the big toe
  • Must help individual in the search for optimal solutions…
  • Develop awareness
discovery learning
Discovery Learning
  • Every time I had the ball at my feet as a boy I tried to invent new dribbles, new moves," he said. "I always looked to have my own identity in football, that was my dream (Ronaldo)."

EXPLORE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

manipulating constraints
Manipulating Constraints
  • Teachers can manipulate task constraints to create learning environments that facilitate development of intrinsic feedback mechanisms with less recourse to verbal input.
summary
Summary
  • Representative practice task design that reduces amount of verbal input from the teacher
  • Make sure the practice task design is representative of games
  • All key information sources available so learners can become attuned to them
  • Use questions to develop awareness.
natural learning wright 2004
Natural Learning (Wright, 2004)
  • TV has taken the game to far flung corners of the country [India], where previously it was hardly played at all.
  • The players now emerging from these regions have learned the game by watching and copying, which in some ways is more preferable to being taught how to play by coaches.
  • As a result, the likes of Sehwag or Dhoni can come out of nowhere with methods based on instinct and improvisation, and without the fear of failure that can be instilled by over coaching.

i.renshaw@qut.edu.au