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Improving Teaching Methods in Mathematics in Primary Education. Fadjar Shadiq, M.App.Sc PowerPoint Presented on JICA training, “Improving Teaching Methods in Mathematics in Primary Education” University of Tsukuba, Japan, February 12, 2013.

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improving teaching methods in mathematics in primary education

Improving Teaching Methods in Mathematics in Primary Education

Fadjar Shadiq, M.App.Sc


PowerPoint Presented on JICA training, “Improving Teaching Methods in Mathematics in Primary Education”University of Tsukuba, Japan, February 12, 2013


Personal Identity

Name: Fadjar Shadiq, M.App.Sc

Deputy Director for Administration SEMEO QITEP in Mathematics

Place and Date of Birth: Sumenep - Indonesia, 20-4-55

Education: Unesa (Indonesia) and

Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA

Teaching Experience:

SHS Mathematics Teacher and Instructor

(+62 274)880762; +62 8156896973 &


SEAMEO (Southeast Asian Minister of Educ Organization) Member Countries




Your Comment?

(NCTM, 1973:235)


6 greenand7 orange

7 greenand6 orange

playing with numbers
Playing With Numbers

Choose any three-digit number, the hundreds digit is minimally two more than the unit digit (Ex. 862 as the first number)

Change the position of the hundreds digit and the unit digits (Ex. 268 as the second number)

Subtract the second number from the first number (Ex. 862 – 268 = 594)

Do the same procedure in number 2 for the answer in number 3 (Ex. 495)

Do addition. What is the result? 1089? Why?


Mathematics is important for us, however some students do not want to learn it.

Even dan Ball (2009:1): “ ... teachers are key to students’ opportunities to learn mathematics.”


Which Number is the Easiest to Learn?





How to Help Our Children Learn?


Students should construct their knowledgebased on their ‘previous/prior knowledge’

Meaningful Learning

Learning with Understanding



Descartes, CEuvres, vol. VI, pp.20-21 & p,67

“Each problem that I solved became a rule which served afterwards to solve other problems.”

“If I found any new truths in the sciences, I can say that they all follow from, or depend on, five or six principal problems which I succeeded in solving and which I regard as so many battles where the fortune of war was on my side.”


The Importance of Thinking

Developing mathematical thinking has been a major objective of mathematics education (Isoda, viii).

The objective of mathematics in Indonesia: “Learners have a positive attitude and personal qualities needed to succeed in life, and has the knowledge and basic mathematics skills in communicating, arguing, and problem solving in using mathematics needed in their daily life and for further education.” (2013 Curriculum).


Learn How to Learn/Independent L

In Japan the purpose of education (Isoda & Katagiri, 2012:31) is as follows.

"... To develop qualifications and competencies in each individual school child, including the ability to find issues by oneself, to learn by oneself, to think by oneself, to make decisions and to act independently. So that each child or student can solve problems more skillfully, regardless of how society might change in the future."


The Questions:

How to Help Our Students to Learn MathematicsMeaningfully?

How to Help Our Students to Think?

How to Help Our Students to be an IndependentLearner?


5 – (– 3) = ….

What is the Result?

Why? Only Let Our Students to Memorize?

How to Facilitate Students to Learn with Understandingand Facilitate Them to Think and be Independent Learners?


5 – 4 = ….

5 – 3 = ….

5 – 2 = ….

5 – 1 = ….

5 – 0 = ….

  • Start with activity/task that student already know
  • Let students to explore
  • Inductive deductive
  • Let students to communicate
the psa i ncludes
The PSA Includes

1. Enabling students to apply and extend the learned ideas to new problem situation by/for themselves

2. Teacher must accept any ideas of children if it is originated from what they already learned but allows them to talk on their demand

Masami Isoda (2011)


How many squares are there in this diagram?

(Isoda & Katagiri, 2012:31)

How do you teach your students?

What are the advantages? Disadvantages?

How to improve the method?


How many squares are there in this diagram?

The Preferred Method

(Isoda & Katagiri, 2012:31)

Clarification of the task #1  All of the squares

Clarification of the task #2  Let them to think the best way of counting (better and easier)

Realizing the benefit of sorting

Knowing the benefit of encoding (naming)

Validating the correctness of result

Coming up with a more accurate and convenient counting method


How do We Help Our Students to Think?

  • Start with Task/Activity Open Ended
  • Let Students to Explore see Math Attitudes (Mindset)
  • Inductive, Analogy,Deductive, and others  see Math Methods in General
  • (Source: Isoda & Katagiri, 2012:50-52)

The first pattern consist of three matches. How many matches are there in the tenth and hundredth pattern?


How to Change the Teaching Practice?

Teachers need to experience in ways that they will be expected to teach it..

Teachers need to understand the importance of math thinking. Teachers cannot teach what they themselves do not understand.

(Isoda & Katagiri, 2012:37)


Why Lesson Study?

Lesson study is a system of planning and delivering teaching and learning that is designed to challenge teachers to innovate their teaching approaches, and to recognize the possibilities of intellectual and responsible growth of learners while fostering self confidence in all concerned.

(Stacey, Tall, Isoda, Imprasitha, 2012:5)


Why Lesson Study?

Subanar, Aggraeni, Iryanti, Shadiq, and Sukarman (2011:21) stated:

The three-step of lesson study: ‘Plan’, ‘Do’ and ‘See’ activities are very important in enhancing the quality of any aspect of the teaching and learning process in the classroom.



Even R.; Ball, D.L. (2009). Setting the stage for the ICMI study on the professional education and development of teachers of mathematics. In Even R.; Ball, D.L. (Eds). The Professional Education and Development of Teachers of Mathematics. New York: Springer

Isoda, M. (2011). Joyful Mathematics Problem Solving Approach with Textbook Materials. Yogyakarta: SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics.

Isoda, M. & Katagiri, S. (2012). Mathematical Thinking. Singapore: World Scientific.  I personally recommend that all participants of this course have a copy of this book.

NCTM (1973). Instructional Aids in Mathematics. Washington D.C.: NCTM.


The End

Thank You

Very Much