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TYPES OF COMPOUNDS. Chemical Family Resemblances. Binary salts. Binary salts are made of a metal and a nonmetal – only two different elements. Examples: NaCl, MnO 2 Binary salts are named with the name of the metal first, then the name of the nonmetal with the “-ide” ending. Example: K 2 O

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TYPES OF COMPOUNDS


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types of compounds

TYPES OF COMPOUNDS

Chemical Family Resemblances

binary salts
Binary salts
  • Binary salts are made of a metal and a nonmetal – only two different elements. Examples: NaCl, MnO2
  • Binary salts are named with the name of the metal first, then the name of the nonmetal with the “-ide” ending.

Example: K2O

potassium oxide

formulas
FORMULAS
  • The formula unit is the simplest ratio of ions in the salt.

Ga2O3

2:3 ratio of gallium atoms to oxygen atoms

2 gallium atoms and 3 oxygen atoms make one formula unit

formulas1
formulas
  • Electrons and charge are conserved in a formula unit.
    • 2 gallium atoms have a total of 6 valence electrons and no charge
    • 3 oxygen atoms have a total of 18 valence electrons and no charge
    • so gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has 18+6=24 valence electrons and no charge
conservation
conservation
  • Conservation of electrons and charge in gallium sulfide (Ga2S3)
oxidation numbers
oxidation numbers
  • Oxidation number of an ion is equal to the charge on an ion after it gains or loses electrons.
  • All atoms gain or lose electrons to try to attain a noble gas configuration (8 valence electrons)
  • Noble gases have no oxidation numbers
oxidation numbers1
oxidation numbers
  • Metals – lose all valence electrons, positive (+) oxidation numbers
  • Metals lose electrons so as to expose full valence shell in next lower level
    • Alkali metals and hydrogen are +1
    • Alkaline earths are +2
    • Aluminum and friends are +3
oxidation states
oxidation states
    • Tin and lead are +2 or +4
    • Transition metals vary
  • Nonmetals – gain electrons, negative (-) oxidation numbers
  • Enough electrons are gained to complete the valence shell
    • Oxygen is always –2, and sulfur is –2 unless with oxygen
ternary salts
ternary salts
    • Halogens are –1 unless with oxygen
    • Nitrogen and phosphorus are –3 unless with oxygen or halogens
  • Ternary salts are composed of more than two elements
  • Ternary salts contain polyatomic ions
    • Polyatomic ions contain more than one atom

example: CO3-2 carbonate

polyatomic ions
polyatomic ions
  • Polyatomic anions have a (-) charge, and polyatomic cations a (+) charge
  • Polyatomic ions act as a unit – the subscripts of the formula may not be changed
  • Names and formulas
    • Most names end in “-ate” or “-ite”, which means the ion contains oxygen
naming polyatomic ions
naming polyatomic ions
  • Examples: sulfate (SO4-2), sulfite (SO3-2)
  • The ending and prefix (if present) indicate the relative number of oxygen atoms in the formula.

perchlorate ClO4–

chlorate ClO3–

chlorite ClO2–

hypochlorite ClO–

polyatomic cations
polyatomic cations
  • The “-ium” ending means a positive ion (hydronium, H3O+, and ammonium, NH4+)
  • Multiple ions are indicated by parentheses and a subscript
    • Example: magnesium hydroxide is Mg(OH)2
    • Ammonium sulfide: (NH4)2S
formulas with polyatomic ions
formulas with polyatomic ions
  • Formulas are made the same way as the binary salts, with the criss-cross method

+

-2

Na

CO3

2

(

)

Ca+2

Ca

OH-

2

naming ternary salts
Naming ternary salts
  • Ternary salts are named with the metal name first, then the name of the polyatomic ion

K3PO4

potassium phosphate

transition metal salts
Transition metal salts
  • Many transition and “other” metals have more than one oxidation number
  • These numbers are found on some periodic tables
  • Metals to know: Fe (+2, +3), Cu (+1, +2), Ag (+1), Zn (+2), Sn (+2, +4), Pb (+2, +4), Bi (+3, +5)
transition metal salts1
transition metal salts
  • Oxidation number of transition metal is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses
  • FeCl3 is iron (III) chloride
  • Name these: CrO

chromium (II) oxide

Cr2O3

chromium (III) oxide

CrO3

chromium (IV) oxide

transition metal salts2
transition metal salts
  • The Roman numeral is not needed if there is only one oxidation state for the metal (i.e. Zn, Ag, Sc)
  • The Roman numeral is also used for “other” metal salts like tin (II) fluoride (SnF2, formerly used in toothpaste)
  • Transition metal salts are often brightly colored
hydrates
hydrates
  • Hydrates are salts that have water incorporated into the crystal structure
  • The water is usually associated with the cation
  • The number of water molecules in the crystal are specified in the formula

MgCl2. 6H2O

hydrates1
hydrates
  • The dot means they are not chemically bonded
  • Names of hydrates – “hydrate” plus a prefix is added to the salt name

MgCl2. 6H2O

is magnesium chloride hexahydrate

  • Prefix indicates the number of water molecules
hydrate prefixes
hydrate prefixes

mono = 1 di = 2

tri = 3 tetra = 4

penta = 5 hexa = 6

hepta = 7 octa = 8

nona = 9 deca = 10

formation of hydrates
Formation of hydrates
  • Hydrates can be formed when certain salts are crystallized from water.
  • Example – CuSO4. 5H2O {copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate}
  • Hygroscopic compounds become hydrates by taking water from the air.
formation of hydrates1
Formation of Hydrates
  • Example – sodium carbonate becomes sodium carbonate decahydrate

(Na2CO3. 10H2O)

  • Deliquescent compounds take enough water from the air to form concentrated solutions – examples: calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH)