Catalyst: What types of bonds hold together organic compounds? • Agenda • Catalyst • Test recap • Objectives SWBAT • Analyze their first unit test and correct missed questions
Catalyst: What makes one ecosystem different from another? • Agenda • Catalyst • Haiti • Ecosystem Boundaries • Photosynthesis Lab set up • Objectives • Define an ecosystem and identify ecosystem boundaries • Describe the ways energy and matter flow through a ecosystems
Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology
Haiti pg. 57 1)Identify TWO social, economic and environmental impacts caused by the deforestation of Haiti's forests. 2)Explain how the US is helping Haiti with their deforestation issues.
Ecosystem Ecology Examines Interactions Between the Living and Non-Living World • Define:Ecosystem- • What are the abiotic components of an ecosystem? • Examine figure 3.2 on pg. 59 • How do these two ecosystems differ? How can you identify the boundaries of an ecosystem?
Catalyst: What is the Equation for Photosynthesis • Agenda • Catalyst • Ecosystem boundaries • Photosynthesis Lab • Objectives • Describe the ways energy and matter flow through ecosystems • Design an experiment to examine the factors the affect the rate of photosynthesis
Ecosystem Boundaries • Some ecosystems, such as a caves and lakes have very distinctive boundaries. However, for most ecosystems it is difficult to determine where one ecosystems stops and the next begins.
Ecosystem Processes • Even though it is helpful to distinguish between two different ecosystems, ecosystems interact with other ecosystems. • A biotic factors of an ecosystem is = • An abiotic factors of an ecosystem is = • Scientists don't just study biotic and abiotics they look at the FLOW OF ENERGY and MATTER through the ecosystem • Sun--> Plants--> Herbivores/Omnivores--> Carnivoures--> Detrivoures-->Plants.......
Energy Flows through Ecosystems Whats the flow of energy and matter in this ecosystem??
Photosynthesis • Producers (autotrophs) are able to use the suns energy to produce usable energy through the process called photosynthesis. • Energy(light)+ H2O+ CO2--> Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 • What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis? Hint: LOOK AT THE REACTANTS (write the list the class creates)
Photosynthesis Lab • Remembering the photosynthesis lab from Biology…. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnY9_wMZZWI
Catalyst: Think about the variable that you have chosen to manipulate. What do you think would be an appropriate control group for your experiment? What What other materials need to be held constant throughout your experiment?
Cellular Respiration • Consumers (heterotrophs) use the energy in the sugar and water to sustain their metabolic processes • O2 + Glucose → CO2 + H2O + Heat energy
Catalyst: Using your food web OR the food web on pg. 62 Identify all Producers, primary Consumers, secondary Consumers, tertiary consumers as well as all decomposer's Agenda: Catalyst Ecosystem productivity GPP and NPP Math Practice Objectives Identify how energy changes as it moves up the trophic levels Calculate ecological efficiency
What is the second law of thermodynamics? Where is there energy lost to the environment?
Trophic Levels, Food Chains, and Food Webs • Define: • Consumers (heterotrophs), • Primary Consumers (herbivores), • Secondary Consumers (carnivores), • Tertiary Consumers (carnivores), • Scavengers, • Detritivores, • Decomposers
Food Chain- The sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers. • Food Web- A more realistic type of food chain that takes into account the complexity of nature.
Ecosystem Productivity • Gross primary productivity (GPP)- The total amount of solar energy that the producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time. • 99% of the sun's energy gets reflected or passes through producers ~1% of the suns energy gets captured through photosynthesis • Net primary productivity (NPP)- The energy captured (GPP) minus the energy respired by producers. (huh?) • Of the 1% that gets captured 60% is lost through reparation 40% supports the growth of producers
Lets talk about percentages! • Finding 10% of a number might just be the easiest math you will ever do… • You move the decimal over to the LEFT ONE SPACE • Ex: what is 10% of 385g? • 38.5g (yes it really is that easy) • What is 10% of 450J? • What is 10% of 3,248.97J? • What is 10% of 6,789.2J? • What is 10% of 20.97J? • What is 10% of .089J? • What is 10% of .00678J?
What about finding 1%? • Move the decimal over TWO SPACES to the LEFT! • Ex: 1% of 2,309J • 23.09J (again…it’s that easy!) • What is 1% of 65.4J? • What is 1% of 520.90J? • What is 1% of .0987J? • What is 1% of 4309J? • What is 1% of .00567J? • What is 1% of .0489J?
By using these two skills you can find ANY percentage! • What is 15% of 345g? • What is 75% of 234m? • What is 48% of 32.8J? • What is 60% of 47.9g? • What is 32% of .058J?
Catalyst: Total solar energy is 125,000J what gets absorbed by plants via photosynthesis? Agenda: Catalyst Homework review-Math Practice Calculating ecological efficiency Cycling of matter Carbon cycle Objectives: Calculate ecological efficiency Explain how Carbon cycles through the geosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.
Math Practice! • What is 10% of 3,000? • What is 10% of 3? • What's 10% of .30? • Some cute shoes are on sale for 15% off if the original retail price is $45 how much would you pay before tax? • You decide to buy the shoes. When you go to pay for them you are informed there is a 10% sales tax in IL. How much will you end up paying for the shoes?
NPP=GPP – 60% loss from respiration The total amount of energy that hits a lake ecosystem is 124,380J What is GPP? The total amount of energy that hits a tundra ecosystem is 90,650J what is GPP? GPP is 1,340J what is NPP? GPP is 400J What is NPP?
Calculating ecological efficiency • Crop land produces 2,000 Kg of grain. If that grain is fed to humans directly how many Kg of biomass would be produced? • If that same 2,000 kg of grain was fed to cows and then the humans ate the beef produced by those cows how much of the original energy from the grain would get to the humans? • 1kg of soybeans contains 2.5 times more calories than 1kg of beef. So an acre of land thats used for soybeans produces 25 times more calories than if the same amount of land was used for cows. You have 7 acres how many calories can you generate by growing soy vs. raising cattle? Assume 1 acre produces 12kg of soybeans & that 1kg of soy beans = 50,000 Calories
Catalyst: What percent of GPP actually goes to support the growth and reproduction of producers? Agenda Catalyst & HW Partner quiz Cycle projects Objectives Explain how energy and matter cycle through ecosystems
Partner quiz! What is GPP? (define and explain it) What is NPP? (define and explain it) If the total amount of solar energy that hits the planet is 134,780J what is GPP? If GPP is 45,970J what is NPP? If GPP is 5,680J how much energy is lost to the environment through cellular respiration? If producers represent 7,480J of energy within an ecosystem how much of that energy makes it to the primary consumers? Secondary consumers?
Energy Transfer Efficiency and Trophic Pyramids • Biomass- • Standing crop- • Ecological efficiency- • Trophic pyramid- • Look at figure 3.9 on pg. 65 • What is our unit of energy? • What percentage of energy gets transferred up each trophic level? (ecological efficiency)
Figure 3.8 pg. 64 • What is the unit on the x-axis? • What does that mean in regular English? :) • What are the two most productive Terrestrial AND Aquatic ecosystems? Give the units!
Matter cycles through the biosphere • Biosphere- The combination of all ecosystems on Earth. • Biogeochemical cycles- The movement of matter within and between ecosystems involving biological, geologic and chemical processes.
Cycling of elements • Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulfur ALL cycle through the environment • Producers absorb them through SOIL and IONS in the air • Consumers obtain them by eating producers • Decomposers return them into the system
Cycling of Nutrient Projects • Nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, hydrologic cycle. • You and a partner will be responsible for putting together a power point presentation that teaches other students about your cycle. • You must explain how matter cycles through the BIOSPHERE and through and ECOSYSTEM (biotic cycling) • Highlight important components of the cycle • Impacts on abiotic components and biotic components. • How human activities impact the cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle • The movement of water through the biosphere • Fig. 3.10 pg. 67 • Define the process of evapotranspiration, transpiration and runoff
Carbon Cycle • 20% of living things by mass is Carbon • Makes long chains of organic molecules (major macromolecules- Proteins, Carbohydrates, lipids, DNA) • Carbon cycle can be fast or slow • Fast = Plants and living things • Slow = Carbon in rocks, soil, or held underground
Carbon cycle continued • Look at figure 3.11 and answer the following questions in your notes • Describe the natural contributions to Atmospheric carbon • Describe the anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon • Explain how carbon ends up in the ocean • Describe how carbon gets incorporated into rocks • Describe how carbon gets buried and turns into fossil fuels
Catalyst: What are the 6 key macronutrients? Agenda: Catalyst Nitrogen cycle Homework!--- checkpoints on pg. 73 & vocabulary flashcards pg. 65-73 Objective: Explain how matter flows through ecosystems
How do I remember all those steps? Fix A N N A P A A D N
How do I remember all those steps? Fix- nitrogen fixation A mmonia N itrofication N itrates A ssimilation P roteins A mmonification A ammonia D entrification N itrogen
Nitrogen Fixation Normally done by anaerobic bacteria within legumes (Legumes are beans) Turns Atmospheric N2 into Ammonia NH3= biotic Lightening fixes N2 into NO3- (nitrate) = abiotic
Assimilation Producers absorb the ammonia or Nitrate Consumers eat producers and assimilate the nitrogen to make PROTEINS
Ammonification Decomposers break down biological nitrogen into ammonium NH4+
Nitrification Bacteria convert ammonium into nitrite and then nitrate 1. Use the space below to show the chemical chain reaction of this process 2. How is ammonium chemically different from Nitrite's? 3. How is nitrite different from nitrates? 4. What elements are lost to the environment? 5. What elements are gained?
Dentrification Bacteria in oxygen poor soils or eutrophic ponds take the oxygen from the Nitrate and turn it into nitrous oxide and then into nitrogen gas 1. Use the space below to show the chemical chain of events 2. When nitrate is readily transported into soil or water what is the process called? (pg. 71) 3. Explain what happens when there is excess nitrogen within an ecosystem.