Crisis in the Colonies 1745-1775
Objectives • Discuss how the rivalry of Britain and France led to war in North America • Explain how strategic mistakes and a lack of unity led to British defeats early in the war • Identify what turned the tide of war in Britain’s favor • Describe how British troops brought about the fall of New France
Why should you care? • Part of Larger struggle • Contest for power spread feelings to those in the colonies
Native Americans’ Choice • British & the Iroquois • French & NA’s from fur trade • Think about these questions: • If you wanted to be on the winning side, which side would you join? Why? What might happen if your ally lost?
The Fighting Breaks Out • 1754: called the French and Indian War because it pitted the English settlers against France and its Native American allies • Young British leader: George Washington
Not a good start… • Washington were surrounded by French and Indians (700) • Fort Necessity
September 18, 1759 • Over the course of the war, the tide of the war changed numerous times • On September 18, 1759: British capture Quebec
Treaty of Paris • 1763: official end to war • French power no more • A new conflict would soon break out
Turmoil Over Taxation Setting the Scene for War Click here to listen to a song about the American Revolution!!!
Objectives • Describe how Britain tried to ease growing tensions on the American frontier • List the ways colonists reacted to new taxes imposed by Parliament • Identify the new colonial leaders who emerged s the conflict with Britain escalated • Discuss the events that led to the Boston Massacre
New Troubles • Colonists move westward • NA’s were to the west • Britain not happy with clashes • Clashes with NA cause more problems
Proclamation of 1763 • British wanted westward movement to stop • Don’t cross the line… • Colonists were forbidden to settle west of the line
Angered the colonists • Additional British troops were brought in • The colonists had to pay • In the end, many settlers simply ignored the proclamation and moved west anyway
New Taxes are Imposed • British debt • George Grenville: Americans should pay • Who minds small taxes?
Sugar Act • 1764 • Put a new tax on molasses (a valuable item in the trade community) • Colonists began smuggling • It actually lowered the tax
The Sugar Act Need some more information on the Sugar Act? Click here! Molasses Factory affected by the Sugar Act…
Stamp Act • 1765 • Placed a new tax on legal documents such as will, diplomas, and marriage papers • Also taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and even dice
The Stamp Act Need some follow-up on the Stamp Act? Click here! A protest in New York City against the Stamp Act…
Protesting the Stamp Act • Some colonists threw rocks • Tar and feathering of agents • Riots broke out • The British didn’t understand…
How could they? • “Why are the colonists so angry about the Stamp Act?” • The answer: • “Our Colonies must be the biggest Beggars in the World, if such small Duties appear to be intolerable Burdens in their Eyes.” • “Pacificus,” Maryland Gazette, March 20, 1766
No Taxation Without Representation • Stamp Act was against principle • No taxation without representation • Elected representatives = taxes
Peaceful Protest • October 1765: delegates from 9 colonies • Drew up a petition: • a formal written request to someone in authority, signed by a group of people • Parliament paid little attention
Other Steps to Change the Law • Boycott: • refusal to buy certain goods and services • British merchants were facing ruin • In 1766, Parliament repealed (canceled) the Stamp Act
The Townshend Acts • 1767 • Taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea • Taxes were low, but… • Again, taxation without rep.
The Townshend Act Need some more info. On the Townshend Act? Click here! Riot against the Townshend Act
Colonial Protests Widen • Sons of Liberty: a group of colonists who joined together to protest British policies • Staged mock hangings • Showed what would happen to tax collectors • Daughters of Liberty: women protesters • Paraded, signed petitions, organized boycotts
The Sons of Liberty Want more info. on the Sons of Liberty protests against the Stamp Act? Click here! The Sons of Liberty started the protest for the appeal of the Stamp Act…
Colonial Leaders • Massachusetts: • Samuel Adams: his real talent was organizing people; arranged protests & stirred public support • John Adams: had excessive knowledge of British law • Virginia: • Patrick Henry: moved important political figures such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson
The Boston Massacre • A dispute arose over the Quartering Act • More British officers were then stationed • Isn’t that bullying? Remember!!!
A Bloody Night • March 5, 1770 • Colonists crowded around a customs house • The crowd began throwing snowballs, oyster shells, and chunks of ice at British soldiers • The crowd grew larger and rowdier
A Touch of Calm • Quartering Act repealed • Most taxes that angered colonists ended • However, Britain kept up the right to tax the colonists • A little unsettling
Objectives • Discuss how a dispute over tea led to tension between the colonists to tension between the colonists and the British government • Describe how Parliament struck back at the people of Boston • Explain why fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord
A Dispute Over Tea • Tea Act passed • British East India Company • Colonists resented a tax on tea and did not purchase more than 15 million pounds of tea
Tea Act • 1778 • To help the British East India Company • Company allowed to sell directly to colonists • Their tea was cheaper
Shocked… • Britain was shocked • Colonists felt forced to buy tea from the BEIC • Once again the colonists responded with a boycott
Boston Tea Party • November 1773: Three ships loaded with tea reached Boston harbor • The governor of Massachusetts wanted the tea unloaded • Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty had alternate plans
The Boston Tea Party Still need more info. on the Boston Tea Party? Click here! Colonists dressed as Mohawk Native Americans dump tea into Boston Harbor
The Sons of Liberty Meet • December 16th: Old South Meetinghouse • Ships must leave the harbor • The governor rejected • “Boston harbor a teapot tonight! The Mohawks are come!”
What happened next? • The disguised colonists headed for the harbor • By 10PM, the Boston Tea Party was over • 342 chests of tea floated in the harbor
Parliament Strikes Back • The British were outraged • 1774: Parliament urged for punishment • Intolerable Acts were passed
Intolerable Acts • Shut down the port of Boston • No meetings without permission • Parliament passed a new Quartering Act
The Intolerable Acts The colonists found the Intolerable Acts…intolerable! The Intolerable Acts… Click here!
Quebec Act • Set up a government for Canada • Gave complete religious freedom to French Catholics • Angered colonists…
First Continental Congress • September 1774 • Delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia (No GA) • Boycott all British goods • Each colony have own militia • An army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
1st CC Continued • A situation occurred… • More and more British troops were arriving • The minutemen (volunteers prepared to fight a minute’s notice) were getting ready
First Continental Congress More info. on the First Continental Congress… Our Founding Fathers meet at the First Continental Congress
The American Revolution 1775-1783