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Cell Chart Review . “little organs” each one performs a specialized function that enables the cells to survive. found only inside eukaryotic cells. Embryonic Stem Cells . Eukaryotic cells, found in animals.

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cell chart review

Cell Chart Review

“little organs”

each one performs a specialized function that enables the cells to survive.

found only inside eukaryotic cells

embryonic stem cells
Embryonic Stem Cells

Eukaryotic cells, found in animals.

In early development these cells have the potential to become any cell in the body.

Currently stem cells can be harvested from embryos, cord blood, and now some adult cells can be induced to turn back the clock and become stem cells.

Stem cell research may hold the answer to many questions about human health and disease.

It can be controversial due to the harvesting of cells from human embryos.

cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • Regulates what goes in and out of the cell “doorman”
  • Selectively permeable
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • protects the PLANT cell and maintains its shape
  • located outside of the cell membrane
  • made of cellulose in plants
  • NOTE: prokaryotes and fungi have a cell wall too!
cytoplasm
Cytoplasm

suspends organelles

“jelly-like”

nucleolus
Nucleolus

Makes ribosomes

Located inside the nucleus

nucleus dna nuclear membrane nm
Nucleus, DNA, Nuclear Membrane (NM)

Nucleus: houses the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA; controls reproduction and metabolism “brain”

DNA: Gentic material

NM:surrounds nucleus, contains pores

ribosomes
Ribosomes

Make proteins

endoplasmic reticulum e r
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)

Can be Rough or Smooth

Rough E.R.:contains ribosomes; a system of tubes and sacs that transport these proteins “highway”

smooth e r
Smooth E.R.

No ribosomes

builds lipid molecules

also detoxifies the cell of poisons or toxins, including drugs or medicine.

golgi apparatus and vesicles
Golgi Apparatus and Vesicles

Golgi Apparatus: modifies, stores, and packages proteins and other chemical products to their next destinations

processing and shipping center “UPS”

Products are “shipped” in vesicles

vesicles bottom of cell chart
Vesicles (bottom of cell chart)

“shipping containers” - move products (proteins, water, waste) into, out of, and within a cell

vacuoles
Vacuoles
  • Central Vacuole in Plants - stores water and salts, causes cells to expand
  • Animals - stores undigested nutrients
paramecium contractile vacuole
Paramecium – Contractile Vacuole
  • pump out excess water that diffuses into the cell
lysosomes
Contain digestive enzymes that break down wastes or expose food “garbage disposal”

help destroy harmful bacteria “suicide sacs”

Recycle damaged organelles

“recycling center”

Lysosomes
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts

- capture sunlight and transforms it into carbohydrates (glucose)

- photosynthesis

- contains green pigment - chlorophyll

mitochondria
Mitochondria

“Powerhouse” – make energy

Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy for the cell to use

cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton

maintains cell shape and protects the cell

cilia and flagella
Cilia and Flagella
  • Cilia: short hair-like extensions
  • Flagella:long tail-like extenstions
  • Both aid in movement
centrioles
Centrioles
  • Animal cells only
  • Paired structures
  • Move chromosomes during cell division