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  1. CADDO The Caddos in east and northeast Texas were perhaps the most culturally developed. They were successful agriculturists who lived in permanent abodes. It was a group within this tribe that the early Spanish authorities called the Tejas, which is said to be the tribes’ word for friend. From this origin, the name evolved to become the name for Mexican province, then the republic, and now the state.

  2. KARANKAWAS The Karankawas ranged along the Gulf coast between present Galveston and Corpus Christi. They were loosely organized in a very primitive culture, and lived mostly fishermen. KARANKAWAWICKIUP

  3. LIPAN-APACHE The Lipan, or Lipan-Apache, were among the more important subgroups of Apaches in Texas. They ranged the furthest eastward and had the most contact with the early Texas settlements. The Lipans fought the Texans, but on many occasions in the nineteenth century became allies of the Texans in campaigns against other Indians LIPAN-APACHE

  4. COAHUILTECAN The Coahuiltecan occupied the region along the lower Rio Grand. Members of this tribe eked out a sparse existance of nourished mainly by roots, herbs, and prickly pear cactus. Because of their location remote from the main settlements of early Texas, they had little contact with the Texans. COAHUILTECAN

  5. MESCALERO-APACHE Other related groups of Apaches, especially the Mescalero-Apache, ranged generally from west Texas into present New Mexico and Arizona. APACHE

  6. COMANCHE The well known Comanche tribes were relative latecomers to Texas, after migrating from the north and northwest. They were perhaps the most troublesome to the early settlers, and were also the most feared. Their mobility and horsemanship seemed to amplify their numbers in the eyes of the early Texans. Comanche

  7. TONKAWA The Tonkawa occupied the region of central Texas. Like the Comanche, they were very mobile and hunted buffalo, deer, and smaller game. TONKAWA

  8. WICHITA The Wichita Indians were original people of southern Oklahoma and norhternTexas, but after Europeans arrived, population pressures forced them further north into Kansas, where the city of Wichita is named for them. Most Wichita people are living in Oklahoma today. WICHITA

  9. BIDAI Bidai. Perhaps from a Caddo word signifying "brushwood," and having reference to the Big Thicket near the lower Trinity River about which they lived. Also called:Quasmigdo, given as their own name by Ker (1816).   Spring Creeks, the name given by Foote (1841). Connections. From the mission records it appears that the Bidai were of the Atakapan linguistic stock. Location. On the middle course of Trinity River about Bidai Creek and to the westward and southwestward. History. The Bidai were living in the region above given when first known to the Europeans and claimed to be aborigines of that territory. The Franciscan mission of San Ildefonso was founded for them and the Akokisa, Deadose, and Patiri. In the latter part of the eighteenth century they are said to have been chief intermediaries between the Spaniards and Apache in the sale of firearms. The attempt to missionize them was soon abandoned. In 1776–77 an epidemic carried away nearly half their number, but they maintained separate existence down to the middle of the nineteenth century, when they were in a village 12 miles from Montgomery. They have now entirely disappeared. Population. Mooney (1928) estimates for them a population of 500 in 1690. In 1805 there were reported to be about 100. Connection in which they have become noted. The name is perpetuated in that of a small creek flowing into Trinity River from the west and in a village known as Bedias or Bedais in Grimes County, Tex.BEDAI

  10. KIOWA The Kiowa Indians are original people of Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Kiowa tribe was forced to move to a reservation in Oklahoma during the 1800's, and most Kiowa people are still living in Oklahoma today. KIOWA