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Battle of the Brains. Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Review. Air Crescent Sign – sickle-shaped lucency partly surrounding a mass in a pulmonary cavity on chest x-ray & CT; classically, aspergillomas.

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Battle of the Brains

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    1. Battle of the Brains Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Review

    2. Air Crescent Sign – sickle-shaped lucency partly surrounding a mass in a pulmonary cavity on chest x-ray & CT; classically, aspergillomas

    3. Air Brochogram Sign-black-branching air-filled bronchi visible because of surrounding airspace disease, such as in pneumonia

    4. Angel Wing Appearance- AKA Bat Wing-patteron of pulmonary edema which involves perihilar regions and spares cortex of lung

    5. Aortic Nipple- bump caused by left superior intercostal vein as it wraps around outer edge of aorta

    6. Black Pleural Line- paradoxical appearance of pleura in pulmonary microlithiasis because of innumerable dense calcifications in adjacent lung

    7. Bulging Fissure Sign- bulging of usually minor fissure from heavy exudative pneumonia like Klebsiella

    8. Coin Lesion- a solitary pulmonary nodule generally considered less than 3 cm in size most often a granuloma or hamartoma

    9. Cervicothoracic Sign- a mass extends above clavicles on frontal chest radiograph should be in posterior chest

    10. Comet Tail Sign- lung-focal area of collapsed lung adjacent to pleural thickening with distortion of blood vessels in rounded atelectasis

    11. Continuous Diaphragm Sign- visualization of entire surface of diaphragm from pneumomediastinum

    12. Crazy Paving Sign- fine reticular pattern superimposed on areas of ground-glass opacity on HRCT, first described with alveolar proteinosis

    13. Crescent Sign- appearance of a sliver of air usually best seen beneath the right hemidiaphragm in pneumoperitoneum

    14. Cannonball Metastases- large, hematogenously spread metastatic lesions in the lungs of varying sizes most often from colon, breast, renal, thyroid primaries

    15. Cottage Loaf Sign- constricted appearance of liver herniated through a right-sided diaphragmatic rupture looks like English cottage loaf

    16. Cupola Sign- arcuate lucency superimposed on lower thoracic spine on a supine abdomen representing free air under the central diaphragmatic tendon

    17. Double Density Sign- overlapping of an enlarged left atrium and the normal right atrium on a frontal chest radiograph

    18. Dense Hilum Sign- appearance of hilum which is neither enlarged nor calcified implying superimposed lung density

    19. Deep Sulcus Sign- inferiorly depressed costophrenic angle from pneumothorax seen on supine radiograph of chest

    20. Double Bronchial Wall Sign- air outlining the trachea and proximal bronchi in pneumomediastinum

    21. Eggshell Calcification lung- peripheral calcification of thoracic lymph nodes, most often seen in silicosis but also sarcoid or post-XRT

    22. Fat Pad Sign- pericardium-pericardium produced by separation of rtrosternal fat from epicardial fat by a line >2 mm, seen on lateral chest radiograph

    23. Figure 3 Sign- in coarctation of the aorta, the dilated LSCA, indentation of coarct and post-stenotic aortic dilatation form “3”

    24. Flat Waist Sign- flattened appearance to left side of cardiac contour due to rotation of heart in LLL atelectasis

    25. Golden’s S Sign- S shape caused by edge of elevated minor fissure and hilar mass in RUL atelectasis

    26. Gloved Finger Sign- finger-like projections from hilum from bronchial mucoid impaction in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or asthma

    27. Hampton’s Hump- wedge-shaped density at periphery of lung described as a sign of pulmonary infarction

    28. Honeycombing- clustered, thick-walled cystic spaces representing dilated and thickened bronchial walls; seen in bronchiectasis

    29. Holly Leaf Appearance- the geographic shape formed by the dense perimeter of a calcified pleural plaque seen en face, esp with asbestos exposure

    30. Hilum Overlay Sign- differentiates large pulmonary artery from hilar mass on CXR; mass superimposes on vessels

    31. Hilum Convergence Sign- differentiates large pulmonary artery from hilar mass on CXR; vessels converge on PA but go past hilar mass

    32. Incomplete Rim Sign- a partly sharply marginated, partly indistinct mass from its projection into an air-filled structure or atmosphere

    33. Incomplete Fissure sign- concave edge produced by pleural fluid abutting an incomplete major fissure, usually on right side

    34. Juxtaphrenic Peak- tent-like projection of the medial hemidiaphragm seen with upper and sometimes middle lobe atelectasis

    35. Knuckle Sign- dilated pulmonary artery with abrupt tapering seen in occlusive disease like pulmonary embolism

    36. Luftsichel Sign- sickle-shaped, over expanded superior segment of LLL interposed between aortic arch and atelectatic LUL

    37. Pawnbroker’s Sign- bilateral hilar and right paratracheal adenopathy seen in sarcoid resembling 3 hanging balls of old Pawnbroker’s shops

    38. Popcorn Calcification- flocculent, amorphous calcification in solid masses, frequently indicating smooth muscle calcifications, e.g fibroids

    39. Pseudotumor- AKA vanishing tumor- fluid in a fissure, usually minor, mostly seen in CHF- vanishes with reversal of failure

    40. Rolled Edge Sign- the dense perimeter of a calcified pleural plaque seen en face, esp with asbestos exposure

    41. Reverse Pulmonary Edema- peripheral airspace disease with sparing of central lung esp in pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia

    42. Ring-Around-the-Artery Sign- air surrounding right pulmonary artery on lateral chest from pneumomediastinum

    43. Spine Sign- paradoxically increasing density of lower spine seen on lateral CXR indicative of a lower lobe process such as pneumonia

    44. Scimitar Sign- anomalous draining pulmonary vein along right heart border that usually empties into IVC; shaped like Turkish sword

    45. Snowstorm Appearance- innumerable small pulmonary nodules frequently associated with metastatic carcinoma from thyroid

    46. Silhouette Sign- the process whereby two substances of the same density which touch each other blur the edges between them

    47. Shmoo Sign- appearance of prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta likened to the Shmoo in L’il Abner comic

    48. Signet Ring Sign- pulmonary-dilated bronchus is larger than accompanying pulmonary artery, seen on chest CT in bronchiectasis

    49. Split Pleura Sign- on CT, contrast enhanced visceral and parietal pleura divide around a less-dense empyema

    50. Saber Sheath Trachea- marked coronal narrowing and sagittal widening of intrathoracic trachea, esp in COPD