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Chapter 25 Section 1. The Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution. Changed way people lived and worked. From farming manufacturing based economy Old New Cottage industry Factories Several factors = Britain ideal place for IR to start. Agricultural practices in 18 th c

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Chapter 25 section 1

Chapter 25 Section 1

The Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution

Changed way people lived and worked.

  • From farmingmanufacturing based economy


    Cottage industry Factories

  • Several factors = Britain ideal place for IR to start.

Agriculture revolution

Agricultural practices in 18th c

More farmland

good weather

new crops - potato

Improved farming methods


Better food production

More crops at a lower price

Population grew

Agriculture Revolution



Enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement

  • Better food production = Pop. grows

    • Leads to Enclosure: Taking over & fencing off land

  • Enclosure movement:

    • Peasants forced off land

    • Fewer workers needed


    • people moved to towns for work

    • supply of labor

  • Economic conditions
    Economic Conditions

    • Supply of Markets

      • Colonies

      • Easy transportation to markets

      • Increase in pop = increased demand

      • Wealthy people w/$ to spend (capital)

    • RESULT:

      • Many markets to sell goods

      • Change from “cottage industry” to factories


    • Factors of Production

      • Resources needed to produce goods

        • Land (natural resources)

          • Coal & iron ore

            • manufacturing

            • Steam engines -coal

        • Labor

          • Workers (plenty Ag Rev)

            • Mine coal & run machines

        • Capital

          • Money

          • Factories & Machines

    • RESULT:

      • Britain had supply & made money

      • Money to invest in machines and factories

    Changes to the textile industry
    Changesto the Textile Industry

    • Factories

      • Developed b/c new machinery too big for home

      • Located near water sources for power

    Inventions in the textile industry
    Inventions in the Textile Industry

    • Flying Shuttle:

      • increased weaving production

    • Spinning Jenny:

      • spun multiple threads at same time

    • Power loom:

      • mechanized loom powered made operation completely automatic

    • Water frame:

      • waterpower to increase spinning

    Transportation revolution

    • Macadam Roads

      • John Macadam

      • Large rocks for drainage

      • Layer of smooth crushed rock on top

      • Heavy wagons could travel in the rain

    • Other new transportation

      • Canals to connect rivers

      • Stronger bridges

    Transportation new technology
    Transportation: New Technology

    • James Watt

      • Steam engine

      • Key power source

      • An energy revolution

        • Coal to power steam engine

  • Steam Locomotive and Railroads

  • Steamboats to travel the waterways

  • Changing history
    Changing History

    • The IR was a long, slow process

      • Simple tools complex machines.

      • New energy sources human and animal power.

    • People lived in small villages.

      • Cottage Industry

    • Now people live in the cities

      • Work in factories

      • Eliminated the “Cottage Industry”

    Chapter 25 section 2

    Chapter 25 Section 2

    Changes caused by

    The Industrial Revolution

    Changes in europe

    Main Idea: Industrialization caused many

    changes in Europe

    What were your predictions for change?

    Industrial Classes form

    Living conditions

    Working conditions

    Growth of Population and Cities

    Changes in Europe

    Growth of population and cities
    Growth of Population and Cities

    • Population grew

      • By 1850, London’s population had grown to 1 million

      • Increased food supply better fed and healthier

    • Cities begin to be homes to


      • people began to move to find jobs

    • Urbanization: city building & the movement of ppl to cities

    New industrial classes

    Middle Class:

    Merchants, factory owners, wealthy farmers

    Claimed most of the wealth from the revolution

    Lived comfortably in the suburbs

    Working Class:

    Laborers in factories

    Poor, lived in slums of the city

    lived in tenements (multistory building with small apartments)

    New Industrial Classes

    Living conditions
    Living Conditions

    • Rapid growth & limited space

      • living conditions were terrible for many

    • No plans or building codes

    • No protection – police

    • Poor people lived in small houses in cramped streets.

    Living conditions1
    Living Conditions

    • Tenements

      • No running water

      • No sewage or sanitation system

      • Waste & garbage rotted in streets

      • Disease was widespread

    Improvements to city safety
    Improvements to City Safety

    • Paved Streets

    • Street lights

    • Police and fire forces

    • Underground sewage systems

    • Steel to construct buildings (skyscrapers)

    Working conditions
    Working Conditions

    • machines running as much as possible

      • 12-15 hr days

      • 6 days/wk

    • Workers not allowed to speak to each other

    • Pay was very low 17.5 - 25 cents/hour

      • Women & children paid much less

    Turn of the century working conditions
    Turn of the century working conditions

    • Many accidents (no safety devices)

      • Sick or injured = lose of job

    • Save money in factories

      • Dangerous conditions

        • Not well lit

        • Dirty

        • No safety devices

      • No aid for injury – lost job

        • diseases

    Factories child labor
    Factories: Child Labor

    • Why Child Labor

      • Smaller hands/quicker moving

      • Did the jobs adults were too big for

      • Needed the wages children brought home

    Factories child labor1



    Beaten or whipped to keep working

    Could pay children less to do work that was easy to accomplish

    no consideration for their safety.

    Factories: Child Labor

    Child labor punishment
    Child Labor: Punishment

    • One common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted."

      • An overseer would tie a heavy weight to worker's neck and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example." This could last up to an hour.


    • Women

      • Employed as spinners, did cleaning, miners, etc

      • Easier to manage

      • Less pay

      • After work, tend to the family and all the problems of urban life

      • worked through pregnancy and even with young children

    Positive effects eventually
    Positive Effects: Eventually

    • Created jobs

    • Nation wealthier

    • Progress in technology

    • Increased production

    • Raised the standard of living

    • Expanded education

    • laws for better wages & conditions

    Working class victories
    Working Class Victories

    • reforms to help laborers

      • Limits # of hours

      • couldn’t employ children under 10

      • Regulated safety in factories

      • Minimum wage laws

      • Improved public health and housing for workers

      • Education Act: public education for all children

      • 1830/40s pass laws regulating child labor