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HHMI. Assessment - What Evidence do You Accept?. Diane Ebert-May Lyman Briggs School Department of Plant Biology Michigan State University. Our Team at MSU. Doug Luckie - Physiology Janet Batzli - Plant Biology Scott Harrison - Microbiology Tammy Long - Ecology

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assessment what evidence do you accept

HHMI

Assessment - What Evidence do You Accept?

Diane Ebert-May

Lyman Briggs School

Department of Plant Biology

Michigan State University

our team at msu
Our Team at MSU
  • Doug Luckie - Physiology
  • Janet Batzli - Plant Biology
  • Scott Harrison - Microbiology
  • Tammy Long - Ecology
  • Heejun Lim - Chemistry Education
  • Duncan Sibley - Geology
  • Joyce Parker - Biochemistry
consensogram directions
“Consensogram” Directions

1. Take one color-coded post-it for each question, write the question # in the corner.

2. Write a number between 0-100 on each

post-it in increments of 10.

3. Do not share responses

consensogram questions
“Consensogram” Questions

Please respond on a scale of 0 -100 in increments of 10:

  • To what degree is your course based on active, inquiry-based learning?
  • To what degree are your course learning objectives, instructional design and assessment aligned?
  • How important is it to use multiple kinds of data to assess your students?
  • How often do I use data to make instructional decisions?
  • In my department, teaching is as important as research for graduate students (100 agree - 0 disagree).
  • In my department, effective teaching is rewarded. (100 agree - 0 disagree)
goals for today
Goals for Today

As a result of your participation in this workshop, you will...

  • Participate in analysis of learning: constructive, inquiry, discovery, active, problem-based, cooperative, outcomes based, project-based.
  • Examine course goals and predicted learning outcomes.
  • Use data to identify student understanding and misconceptions.
  • Use assessment techniques
true or false
True or False?
  • Faculty really are very interested in assessing their students’ learning better, but just don’t know how to?
true or false7
True or False?
  • Lack of meaningful assessment in undergraduate education occurs because faculty are satisfied to be less accountable in their teaching than they are in their research.
true or false8
True or False?
  • Assessing student learning in science is more closely related to what scientists actually do as research than they realize.
assessment in teaching parallels assessment in research
Assessment in ‘Teaching’Parallels Assessment in ‘Research’
  • We collect data with a purpose.
  • Data we collect are aligned with a question about a problem
  • Questions we ask are meaningful, interesting, fundable.
  • Research methods and designs appropriate for question.
  • Instruments/techniques we use are calibrated.
  • We explain results in the context of our questions.
  • Results drive our next questions.
  • Our ideas are peer reviewed for publication/funding.
what are 3 central questions about learning
What are 3 central questions about learning?

1. What do we want our students to know and be able to do?

1.5. What evidence will we accept that students know and can do?

2. How will we help students get there?

cognitive theory
Cognitive Theory
  • “Learners are not simply passive recipients of information; they actively construct their own understanding.”
  • Svinicki 1991
ultimate goal of teaching
Ultimate goal of teaching:

1. Improved student learning.

2. Improved student learning.

3. Improved student learning.

what type of learning
What Type of Learning?

Bloom (1956) described major categories in

Cognitive

Domain of Educational Objectives

convergent thinking
Convergent Thinking
  • Knowledge - remember material
  • Comprehension - grasp the meaning of material
  • Application - use learned material in new concrete situations
      • Adapted from Grolund (1970)
divergent thinking
Divergent Thinking
  • Analysis - break down material to understand organizational structure
  • Synthesis - put parts together to form a new whole
  • Evaluation - judge value of material for a purpose
      • Adapted from Grolund (1970)
classroom environment
Classroom Environment
  • Teacher inspires students to struggle with the discipline - both within and outside the classroom.
  • Teacher needs evidence from students about their progress in learning
what is assessment
What is assessment?
  • Data collection with a purpose
  • Courses: gather data about our students’ learning.
what type of data do we gather
What type of data do we gather?
  • Depends on the evidence we will accept that students have learned what we want them to learn.
  • Data must be aligned with the course goals.
  • Measures of knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
    • tests, extended responses, concept maps,
    • research papers, teamwork, communication
basic objectives biology department hope college
Basic Objectives Biology Department: Hope College

…students to

  • Be active learners - that is to learn biology by doing biology.
  • Learn the basic set of principles and factual knowledge about each of the major areas of biology.
write a learning goal
Write a Learning Goal
  • Individually, write a learning goal for one of your courses (in the context of the departmental objectives)
  • e.g.,
    • students will demonstrate…
    • students will be able to …
slide31
Next
  • Share your goal with a partner in your group
  • Write both goals on large post-its
  • Beneath, write possible performance expectations
functions of assessment data
Functions of Assessment Data
  • Formative: diagnostic feedback to students/instructor
  • Summative: description of students’ level of attainment
  • Evaluative: curricular feedback to instructor
    • (e.g., effectiveness of field trip, lab investigation)
  • Educative: students engaged in interesting, challenging experiences to develop further insight and understanding (Hodson 1992)
in effect
In effect...
  • Assessment IS a form of learning.
goal assessment
Goal => Assessment
  • Students will be able to demonstrate their understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in a variety of problems.
  • Tools: multiple forms of assessment
slide36

Common Misconceptions: Photosynthesis & Respiration

  • Photosynthesis as Energy: Photosynthesis provides energy for uptake of nutrients through roots which builds biomass. No biomass built through photosynthesis alone.
  • Plant Altruism: CO2 is converted to O2 in plant leaves so that all organisms can ‘breathe’.
  • All Green: Plants have chloroplasts instead of mitochondria so they can not respire.
  • Thin Air: CO2 and O2 are gases therefore, do not have mass and therefore, can not add or take away mass from an organism.
multiple choice question pre post
Multiple choice question (pre-post)

Plants gain a tremendous amount of weight (dry biomass) as they grow from seed to adult. Which of the following substances contributes most to that weight gain

a. compounds dissolved in soil water that are take up by plant roots

b. water

c. molecules in the air that enter through holes in the plant leaves

d. organic material in the soil taken up directly by plant roots

e. solar radiation

carbon cycle problem post
Carbon Cycle Problem (post)
  • Two fundamental concepts in ecology are “energy flows” and “matter cycles”. In an Antarctic ecosystem with the food web given above, how could a carbon atom in the blubber of the Minke whale become part of a crabeater seal? Note: crabeater seals do not eat Minke whales. In your response include a drawing with arrows showing the movement of the C atom. In addition to your drawing, provide a written description of the steps the carbon atom must take through each component of the ecosystem Describe which biological processes are involved in the carbon cycle.
radish problem
Radish Problem
  • Experimental Setup:
  • Weighed out 3 batches of radish seeds each weighing 1.5 g.
  • Experimental treatments:
    • 1. Seeds not moistened (dry) placed in LIGHT
    • 2. Seeds placed on moistened paper towels in LIGHT
    • 3. Seeds placed on moistened paper towels in DARK
problem cont
Problem (cont)
  • After 1 week, all plant material was dried in an oven overnight (no water left) and plant biomass was measured in grams.
  • Predict the biomass of the plant material in the various treatments (use think-pair-share).
    • Light, No Water
    • Light, Water
    • Dark, Water
results weight of radish plants

Results: Weight of Radish Plants

1.46 g 1.63 g 1.20 g

Write an explanation about the results.

(Remember all treatments started as 1.5g).

misconceptions assessment instruction
Misconceptions => Assessment => Instruction
  • What data do you want from the assessment?
  • What do you do when you identify student misconceptions?
  • How will the data influence your instructional design?
gene dna chromosome
Gene-DNA-Chromosome
  • Students could explain transcription & translation but not the relation...

“Gene-DNA-Chromosome.”

  • Concept mapping forces students to “Think different” and confront their (mis) understanding.
slide46

Concept Maps

are

Visual Diagrams

or Models

slide47

Concept Maps

are

Visual Diagrams

or Models

Used for

Organization

Assessment

promotes

Reflection &

Learning

slide48

Concept Maps

are

display

Visual Diagrams

or Models

Concepts

connected

with

Used for

Linking Words

Organization

Assessment

promotes

Reflection &

Learning

slide49

Concept Maps

are

display

represent

Visual Diagrams

or Models

Concepts

Knowledge or Understanding

connected

with

has

has

Hierarchy

Structure

Used for

Linking Words

Organization

Assessment

promotes

Reflection &

Learning

slide50

Concept Maps

are

display

represent

Visual Diagrams

or Models

Concepts

Knowledge or Understanding

connected

with

has

has

Hierarchy

Structure

Used for

is constructed

with

Linking Words

Organization

Assessment

Context

promotes

Prior

Knowledge

New

Information

Reflection &

Learning

slide51

low Potential for Assessment of Learning high

high Ease of Assessment low

  • Theoretical Framework
  • Ausubel 1968; meaningful learning
  • Novak 1998; visual representations
  • King and Kitchner 1994; reflective judgement
  • National Research Council 1999; theoretical frameworks for assessment

Assessment Gradient

Multiple Choice … … Concept Maps … … Essay … … Interview

assessment and research
Assessment and Research
  • Assessment answers the “what” questions about student learning.
  • Research provides explanations about the “why” and “how” of student understanding.
open ended questions
Open-ended questions
  • Align with learning goals
  • What thinking skills do you wish to assess, choose one questioning format
    • interpret data?
    • write conclusions from previous work?
    • describe?
    • solve a problem?
writing open ended questions
Writing Open-ended Questions
  • Write a description of the situation.
  • Write the directions for writing.
  • Develop a simple rubric
    • Conceptual understanding
    • Content knowledge
    • Critical-thinking processes
    • Communication skills
individual problem
Individual Problem
  • Explain the phenotypic changes in the tree and the animal. Use your understanding of evolution by natural selection.
how do we develop rubrics
How do we develop rubrics?
  • Describe the goals for the activity, problem, task
  • Select the assessment tasks aligned with goals
  • Develop performance standards
  • Differentiate levels of responses based on clearly described criteria
  • Rate (assign value) the categories
advantages of scoring rubrics
Advantages of Scoring Rubrics
  • Improve the reliability of scoring written assignments and oral presentations
  • Convey goals and performance expectations of students in an unambiguous way
  • Convey “grading standards” or “point values” and relate them to performance goals
  • Engage students in critical evaluation of their own performance
  • Save time but spend it well
limitations of scoring rubrics
Limitations of Scoring Rubrics
  • Problem of criteria
  • Problem of practice and regular use
  • Scoring Rubric website:
    • http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1/flag/
  • Sample Rubrics for Organismal Biology
  • http://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/144/f01
proposal assessment plan essentials
Proposal Assessment Plan - Essentials
  • Agree on goals and objectives for learning
  • Design and implement a thoughtful approach to planning
  • Involve individuals from on/off campus
  • Select/design data collection approaches
  • Examine, share, act on assessment findings
  • Regularly examine assessment process