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SPE 509 PowerPoint Presentation

SPE 509

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SPE 509

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  1. SPE 509 Week 2: T-L process & theories of learning

  2. The questions that p___________ face as they raise ch__________ from in________ to adult life are not easy to an__________. Both fa________ and m________ can become concerned when health problems such as co________ arise any time after the e________ stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young ch________ should have plenty of s________ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g________ should not share the same b________ or even sleep in the same r________. They may be afraid of the d________.

  3. Poultrymen chickens incubation answer

  4. The questions that p___________ face as they raise ch__________ from in________ to adult life are not easy to an__________. Both fa________ and m________ can become concerned when health problems such as co________ arise any time after the e________ stage to later in life. Experts recommend that young ch________ should have plenty of s________ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B________ and g________ should not share the same b________ or even sleep in the same r________. They may be afraid of the d________.

  5. farmers merchants coccidiosis egg chicks sunshine banties geese barnyard roost dark

  6. Approaches to Learning and Teaching • Operant Learning Theory (Behavioral Theory) • Cognitive Strategy Instruction • Information Processing and Schema Theories • Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

  7. Behavioral Theory of Learning • Behavior can be learned and unlearned. • Teachers use reinforcement to increase desirable behavior. • Learners go through stages of learning from the simple to the more difficult. • Learning has occurred when the learner evidences the appropriate response to the particular stimulus. • Student correctly reads a list of words.

  8. Cognitive Learning Theory & Cognitive Strategy Instruction • Cognitive learning theories attempt to explain learning in terms of cognitive processes and structures that are hypothesized to operate within the learner • The goal of instruction is to change the cognitive process in an individual’s mind • Making the cognitive ‘steps’ explicit • Systematic teaching of strategies for thinking • Learning is evidenced by a change in knowledge which makes a change in behavior possible. Learning itself is not directly observable. • “Memory”, “perception”, “metacognition”

  9. Cognitive Strategy Instruction • Strategy Steps • Modeling • Self-Regulation • Verbalization • Reflective Thinking

  10. Teaching Implications of Cognitive Strategy Instruction • Analyze the target behavior • Determine the strategies • Select strategy steps • Teach prerequisite skills • Teach strategy steps using modeling, self-instruction and self-regulation • Give explicit feedback • Teach strategy generalization

  11. Information Processing and Schema Theories • Learning means changes in the learner’s cognitive structure. • Instruction should support the various internal processes by activating mental sets • Affect attention and selective perception • Provide an organization of the new data • Properly sequence instructional materials/lessons

  12. Information-Processing and Schema Theories • Sensing • Attention • Perception • Short-Term or Working Memory • Long-Term Memory and Schemas • Executive Functioning or Metacognition • Background knowledge

  13. Sage, N. A. (2000)

  14. Teaching Implications of Information-Processing and Schema Theories • Provide cues • Have students study the critical feature differences between stimuli • Have the students use the context to aid in perception • Facilitate the activation of schemas, and provide labeled experiences • Teach students to use specific memory strategies • Use organization techniques to assist students in organizing their long-term memories • Teach students how to be flexible thinkers

  15. Cognitive Processes Required For Reading • Perception • Auditory • Visual • Tactile-Kinesthetic • Visual motor integration • Memory • Immediate • Long term • Retrieval • Attention • Executive Function

  16. Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development • Learning occurs in social interaction • Students’ previous social and cultural experiences count • Interdependence of personal, interpersonal, and community planes • Use interactive dialogues or instructional conversations to provide language models • Foster cooperative knowledge sharing • Create meaningful and socially embedded activities. • Thematic unit, literature response, sharing chair, author’s center, partner reading and writing, etc.

  17. Scaffolded instruction • Use of scaffolds • Systematic sequencing of prompts • Contents • Materials • Tasks • Teacher support • Peer support until… • Gradual removal of support

  18. Examples of scaffolding • Help students to sound out • Provision of graphic organizer • Engage students in a discussion about text • Provide starters for writing • Provide word choices • Read aloud with students as they are reading • Word walls • …

  19. Provision of scaffolding • Text: “Zoom” • Author: IstvanBanyai • Task: How do you apply knowledge about teaching and learning process and learning theories in chapter 1 and 2 to plan and implement a reading lesson? • What would be the goals of instruction and learning? • How do you plan for instruction? Steps? • How do you provide instruction, evaluate, and modify instruction? • What are teacher and learner roles in the lesson?

  20. Systematic instruction • Carefully planned sequence for instruction, similar to a builder’s blueprint for a house. • Clearly linked within, as well as across the five major areas of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). • Lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to complex, with clear, concise student objectives that are driven by ongoing assessment.

  21. Direct instruction • Direct instruction utilizes explicit and structured teaching routines. • Teacher models, explains, and guides the students through extended practice of a skill or concept until mastery is achieved. • The lessons are fast paced. • Direct instruction is appropriate instruction for all learners, all five components of reading, and in all settings (whole group, small group, and one-on-one). 

  22. Children who are motivated to read spend more time reading (Guthrie et al., 1999; Morrow, 1992; Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997). • There are consistent associations between reading achievement and the availability of books in the child’s environment (Chambliss & McKillop, 2000). • Reading motivation has also been linked to the development of lifelong readers (Morrow,1992; Wang & Guthrie, 2004).

  23. A teacher’s account of learning theories • What primary learning theory does each example remind you of? Why? • Are there any key words in the descriptions that remind you of any particular learning theory? • Do you like this teacher’s ideas? Why or why not? • What other ideas do you have for each of the scenarios? • In general, how did the teacher’s knowledge of learning theories influence the way she planned for her lessons?

  24. Picture –Question-Answer Relationship (P-QAR) Types • Right there • Artist and you • Students make inferences about what they think is happening • Use both picture and background knowledge • On my own • Make inferences based solely on their own knowledge • Putting it together • Make connections • Draw conclusions

  25. Lesson objectives • Categorize questions according to the four P-QAR relationships. • Answer basic and inferential questions using the pictures in a text • Explain reasoning when answering comprehension questions • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.1.7 Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

  26. Video questions • What learning theories guide the planning of the lesson? • What components of literacy instruction are observed? • What are strengths and weaknesses of the lesson? • How would you have done it differently? • How is instruction provided, evaluated, and modified?

  27. Alphabetic Principle • letters represent sounds • upper and lower case • putting letters together • makes words • Phonological Awareness • and Phonemic Awareness • ability to hear sounds • in words • knowledge of phonemes • segmentation and blending • Word Identification • Strategies (Word Attack) • “sounding out” is critical • picture cues • skip and read on • what makes sense • are there any chunks? • Concepts About Print • how books work • parts of a book • concept of word • left-to-right • written words are spoken • words written down • Vocabulary Development • sight word vocabulary • -patterned words • -most used words (Dolch) • receptive vocabulary • -wide reading • -theme/unit words Balanced Reading Instruction • Responding to Literature • personal response • literary elements: • sequencing story • character mapping • description • theme • Reading Fluency • “feeling” fluent • choral reading • partner reading • big books • book-in-a-bag • repeated reading • Reading Comprehension • and • Cognitive Strategy • Instruction • predicting, questioning, • searching, summarizing, • clarifying, main idea, details Hearing Good Readers Read teacher read aloud partner reading books on tape Increasing Opportunities to Read reading lists (brainstormed) home/school literacy accelerated reader sponge reading