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APUSH . Weber. Agenda. Benchmark exam Market Revolution lecture (20 minutes) Explicating quotes from Voices of Freedom in groups (15 minutes) Individualism discussion (30 minutes) Reading for Friday debate (time permitting). The Factory System.

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  • Benchmark exam

  • Market Revolution lecture (20 minutes)

  • Explicating quotes from Voices of Freedom in groups (15 minutes)

  • Individualism discussion (30 minutes)

  • Reading for Friday debate (time permitting)

The factory system
The Factory System

  • Samuel Slater establishes first factory in 1790

  • First large scale factories in 1814 in Waltham, Mass. Then Lowell, Mass.

  • Nature of work shifted from skilled artisan to that of factory worker.

  • Mass production of interchangeable parts assembled into standardized products.

  • New England textile mills relied primarily on female and child labor.

  • South lagged behind the North in terms of factory production.

Growth of immigration
Growth of Immigration

  • Economic expansion fueled demand for labor

  • German and Irish settled primarily in Northern cities.

  • Reasons for migration (push and pull factors)

  • Filled mainly low-wage unskilled jobs


  • Racist reaction to immigration

  • Response to growing Catholic presence (Irish)

  • Nativists blamed immigrants for:

    • Urban crime

    • Political corruption

    • Alcohol abuse

    • Undercutting wages


  • Freedom linked to availability of land (Manifest Destiny)

  • National myth and ideology surrounding the “West”

  • Transcendentalists responded to competitive materialists individualism of emergent capitalism with idea of self-realization through which individuals remake themselves and their own lives

    • Ralph Emerson (“Self-Reliance”)

The second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening

  • Added religious element to celebration of individual self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination.

  • Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate N.Y.

  • Democratized Christianity

  • Promoted doctrine of human free will

  • Used opportunities of market revolution to spread their message

Limits of prosperity
Limits of Prosperity

  • Opportunities for the “self-made man”

    • Jacob Astor and Heratio Alger

  • Market revolution produced a new middle class.

  • Barred from schools and other public facilities most free African Americans and women were excluded from economic opportunities.

Cult of domesticity
Cult of Domesticity

  • New definition of femininity emerged based on values of love, friendship, and mutual obligation

  • Virtue became personal moral quality

  • Women should find freedom fulfilling their duties in their sphere

Early labor movement
Early Labor Movement

  • Some felt that the market revolution reduced their freedom

  • Economic swings widened gap between rich and poor

  • First workingman’s parties est. 1820s

  • Strikes were common by the 1830s

  • Wage-earners evoked “liberty” when calling for improvements in the workplace

  • Some described wage labor as slavery: “wage slaves”

Voices of freedom
Voices of Freedom

  • You picked a quote from Emerson’s “The American Scholar” and from Orestes Brownson’s “The Laboring Classes” to explicate.

  • Now, share with the class in discussion groups.

  • 1. How does Emerson define the freedom of what he calls “the single individual?”

  • 2. How does Brownson define economic freedom for workers?

  • 3. What does the contrast between these two documents suggest about the impact of the market revolution in America?


  • What are some examples of individualism, the competitive me-first attitude, in modern society?

  • How do you think these things came about? Are they products of human nature or of social convention?

  • Do you think there are different kinds of individualism? If so, how would you classify them?

Emerson s individual
Emerson’s Individual

  • Focus quote:

  • “It is easy in the world to live after the world’s opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great individual is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.”

Ch 10 politics
Ch. 10 Politics

  • We will be debating whether the election of 1828 was a democratic revolution tomorrow.

  • Read ch. 10 in preparation and for Thursday’s test.