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APUSH

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  1. APUSH Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution

  2. Social Aspects of Colonial Society • Demographics in America: • Average age in 1775 was 16 • Populations increasing rapidly • Pennsylvania Dutch: Germans fleeing religious persecution, economic oppression, and war • Scots-Irish: from Scotland, troubled by English restrictions on production of linens and wools

  3. Cities Philadelphia: 30,000 New York: 25,000 Boston: 16,000 Charleston: 12,000 Newport: 11,000

  4. Colonial communication/transportation: Roads Taverns Mail Newspapers

  5. Social Aspects • Paxton Boys – • Philadelphia 1764 • Regulator movement: NC • South: contained about 90% of the slave population • New England: least ethnic diversity (Puritans) • Middle colonies: mainly white but of varying descent • “Praying towns” – New England spots to convert Natives where polyglot communities emerged • Significant because blurred boundaries of tribal identities

  6. The Structure of Colonial Society • Different from England • Land of small farmers with few exceptions • Able to move up social ladder • Stratification begins to emerge pre-Revo • Almshouses in Philadelphia and NYC • “P” for Poor • Slavery begins to divide social classes and wealth becomes concentrated in hands of prosperous gentry • “Jayle birds” – about 50,000 convicts brought to colonies

  7. Economy • Agriculture – 90% of people involved • Fishing – cod to Catholic Europe • Triangular Trade: North America, Europe, South America, West Indies • In your journal, provide an example of products/goods exchanged in the Triangular Trade • Manufacturing • Lumber • Naval Stores • Molasses Act – why is this significant?

  8. Religion • Problems for Puritan churches: 1) elaborate doctrines 2) compromising to liberalize membership requirements • Arminianism – Jacobus Arminius, individual free will determined eternal fate

  9. The Great Awakening • Jonathan Edwards • George Whitefield • Variety of denominations • Old lights vs. new lights • Religious colleges

  10. Press • Zenger Trial – 1734-1735 NY • Zenger charged with seditious libel • Defended by Alexander Hamilton • Freedom of the press and one point for democracy

  11. Politics • Bicameral • In royal colonies upper house appointed by crown • Governors often had trouble with colonial legislatures because they resented imposition of control from crown • In proprietary colonies by proprietor (Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware)

  12. Homework • Analyze the ways in which the following influenced the development of American society: • Puritanism during the seventeenth century • The Great Awakening during the eighteenth century