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THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION
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THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION

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  1. THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION 1789 TO 1797

  2. FIRST INAUGURATION • WASHINGTON RECEIVED 100% OF ELECTORAL VOTE • NEW YORK TEMPORARY CAPITAL • JOHN ADAMS FIRST V.P.

  3. WASHINGTON TAKES OFFICE • UNIVERSALLY RESPECTED • GLOOMY PERSONALITY • 58 YEARS OLD • EVERY ACTION BECOMES PRECEDENT FOR FUTURE PRESIDENTS

  4. INAUGURAL ADDRESS • RECOGNIZED RESPONSIBILITY • “PRESERVATION OF THE FIRE OF LIBERTY” • “TEST OF THE REPUBLICAN MODEL OF GOVERNMENT”

  5. CONSTITUTION AN OUTLINE • WASHINGTON BEGINS TO FILL IN THE DETAILS • JAMES MADISON LEADS CONGRESS • FIRST LAW A TARIFF TO FUND THE GOVERNMENT

  6. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS SMALL • WASHINGTON APPOINTS ONLY SUPPORTERS OF THE CONSTITUTION • CREATES THE CABINET, NOT MENTIONED IN THE CONSTITUTION

  7. FIRST CABINET • JEFFERSON SEC. OF STATE (VA.) • HAMILTON, SEC OF THE TREASURY (NY) • HENRY KNOX, SEC OF WAR (MASS.) • EDMUND RANDOLPH , ATTORNEY GENERAL (VA)

  8. THE JUDICIAL BRANCH • JOHN JAY (NY) 1ST CHIEF JUSTICE • CONGRESS PASSES JUDICIARY ACT 1789 • 6 JUSTICES • 13 JUDICIAL DISTRICTS • GRANT COURT POWER TO ISSUE WRITS OF MANDAMUS • NO MENTION OF “JUDICIAL REVIEW” • HAMILTON HAD DESCRIBED IT IN FEDERALIST PAPERS.

  9. HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PROGRAM • REPORT ON PUBLIC CREDIT • FUND ALL DEBTS AT PAR VALUE PLUS INTEREST ($50 MILLION ) • ASSUME STATE DEBTS $20 MILLION • THIS WILL ESTABLISH CREDIT RATING • DEAL FOR ASSUMPTION OF STATE DEBTS SET CAPITAL SITE

  10. MORE.. • A WHISKEY TAX (STAMP ACT) • ASSERT FEDERAL RIGHT TO DIRECTLY TAX • LEADS TO WHISKEY REBELLION • FEDERAL TROOPS CRUSH THE UPRISING

  11. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES • STRICT CONSTRUCTION • LOOSE CONSTRUCTION • FIRST USE OF “IMPLIED POWERS”

  12. PROTECTIVE TARIFF • HAMILTON WANTS TO PROTECT AMERICAN INDUSTRY • CONGRESS REJECTS PLAN • HAMILTON’S ONLY DEFEAT

  13. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION CAUSES PROBLEMS • 1789 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS • STARTS AS A MODERATE CHANGE- END THE ABSOLUTE MONARCHY. • 1792 THE JACOBINS SEIZE CONTROL- “REIGN OF TERROR”

  14. IN 1799 NAPOLEON TAKES CHARGE. • THE FEDERALISTS FEAR THE EXCESS OF THE REVOLUTION • HAMILTON- THE REIGN OF TERROR PROVES MAN CAN NOT BE TRUSTED. • REPUBICANS SUPPORT THE REVOLUTION.

  15. WAR BETWEEN BRITAIN AND FRANCE BEGINS • THE U.S. IS IN A BIND. THE AMERICAN FRENCH TREATY OF 1778 TIES US TO PERPETUAL FRIENDSHIP. • BUT WE ARE WEAK AND NOT READY FOR WAR. • 1793 CITIZEN GENET COMES TO ASK FOR ASSISTANCE.

  16. WHAT WILL OUR POLICY BE? • JEFFERSON- “WE MUST HONOR OUR COMMITMENT.” • HAMILTON- “OUR COMMITMENT WAS TO THE KING.” • WASHINGTON ORDERS CITIZEN GENET DEPORTED. • NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATION OF 1793.

  17. PROBLEMS WITH BRITAIN. • THEY STILL MAINTAIN FORT ON AMERICAN SOIL. • REFUSE TO RECOGNIZE OUR NEUTRALITY • BLOCKADE THE FRENCH WEST INDIES • IMPRESS AMERICAN SEAMEN INTO THE BRITISH NAVY.

  18. MORE PROBLEMS • BRITISH ARM THE INDIANS ON THE FRONTIER.1794 WAR IS NEAR. • WASHINGTON SENDS JOHN JAY TO LONDON TO NEGOTIATE. • “MAD” ANTHONY WAYNE “BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBER” 1794

  19. THE JAY TREATY 1794 • BRITISH PROMISE TO WITHDRAW FROM NORTHWEST • BRITISH GIVEN MOST FAVOR TRADE STATUS. • US AGREES TO PAY PRE-WAR DEBT • NO MEMTION OF IMPRESSMENT.

  20. WAS THIS A GOOD TREATY FOR THE U.S.? • HAMILTON HAD UNDER CUT OUR POSITION BY TELLING THE BRITISH WE WOULD NEVER GO TO WAR. • REPUBLICAN DENOUNCED THE TREATY. • FEDERALIST CONTROLLED SENATE RATIFIES IT.

  21. THE PINCKNEY TREATY 1795 • SPAIN GRANTS UNLIMITE USE OF THE MISSISSIPPI • THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN NEW ORLEANS • PROMISES TO CONTROL THE INDIANS • SETTLES A BOUNDARY DISPUTE.

  22. WAS THIS A GOOD TREATY FOR THE U.S.? • YES, SPAIN WAS AN ALLY OF FRANCE AND WANTED TO AVOID WAR WITH U.S.

  23. 1797 WASHINGTON RETIRES AFTER TWO TERM. • SET THE 2 TERM TRADITION. • DELIVERS THE FAMOUS FAREWELL ADDRESS. WARNS • “BEWARE OF FOREIGN ENTANGLING ALLIANCES.” • AVOID POLITICAL FACTIONS.

  24. WASHINGTON’S ACCOMPLISHMENTS • ESTABLISHES THE FOUNDATION OF OUR GOVERNMENT • SETS OUR FOREIGN POLICY • EARNS RESPECT FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT • HAMILTON FINANCIAL PROGRAM • AVOIDS WAR

  25. WASHINGTON DIES TWO YEARS LATER. • HE WAS 66 WHEN HE RETIRED. • HE WAS BLED TO DEATH BY HIS DOCTOR.

  26. JOHN ADAMS THE ADAMS ADMINISTRATION 1797 TO 1801

  27. ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION • HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PROGRAM • WESTWARD EXPANSION • THE BILL OF RIGHTS • A CREDITABLE GOVERNMENT • SET A FOREIGN POLICY OF NEUTRALITY • WON THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT AT NEW ORLEANS • AVOIDED WAR WITH BOTH BRITAIN & FRANCE • ESTABLISHED A FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM • SET SEVERAL IMPORTANT PRECEDENTS

  28. THE ELECTION OF 1796 • THE FIRST CONTESTED ELECTION • FEDERALIST NOMINATE JOHN ADAMS & CC PINCKNEY • DEMO/REPUBLICAN NOMINATE JEFFERSON & AARON BURR

  29. THE RESULTS • ADAMS GET 71 ELECTORAL VOTES • JEFFERSON 68 • PINCKNEY 59 • BURR 30 • ADAMS BECOMES PRESIDENT • JEFFERSON VICE PRESIDENT • A SUCCESSFUL TRANSFER OF POWER.

  30. ADAMS HAS A PROBLEM WITH FRANCE • FRENCH PRIVATEERS ATTACK U.S. SHIP. • THE FEDERALISTS LEAD BY HAMILTON DEMAND WAR • ADAMS TRIES DIPLOMACY • 1797 ADAMS SENDS JOHN MARSHALL, PINCKNEY, GERRY TO NEGOTIATE WITH NAPOLEON

  31. THE X,Y,Z, AFFAIR • THE FRENCH DEMAND A BRIBE FROM OUR DIPLOMATS • C.C. PINCKNEY REFUSES SHOUTING: NO! NO!, NOT SIX PENCE!!!! • “MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE NOT ONE RED CENT IN TRIBUTE” • AMERICAN PREPARE FOR WAR AGAINST FRANCE

  32. AN UNDECLARED NAVAL WAR FOLLOWS. • THE NATION DEMANDS WAR WITH FRANCE. • WE ARE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO FIGHT FRANCE ALONE, WE WOULD HAVE TO ALLY WITH BRITAIN. • WAR WOULD BE THE POPULAR CHOICE AND GOOD POLITICS. • ADAMS PUT COUNTRY ABOVE PARTY, TRIES DIPLOMACY AGAIN

  33. THE CONVENTION OF 1800 • END THE AMERICAN FRENCH TREATY OF 1778 • U.S. PAYS ITS OWN DAMAGE CLAIM AGAINST FRANCE. • WAR IS AVOIDED. • SETS STAGE FOR THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE.

  34. THE PROBLEM OF FRENCH SPIES • THE FEDERALIST ARE CONCERNED ABOUT FOREIGN SPIES. • PASS A SERIES OF LAWS TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT.

  35. THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS 1798 • ALIEN ACT- THE PRESIDENT CAN EXPEL ANY ALIEN IN AMERICA HE DEEMS TO BE A THREAT. • ALIEN ENEMIES ACT: IN THE EVENT OF WAR, THE PRESIDENT CAN ORDER THE ARREST OF ANY ALIEN HE DEEMS A POSSIBLE THREAT.

  36. THE SEDITION ACT • MAKES IT A CRIME TO CRITICIZE THE PRESIDENT OR CONGRESS EITHER VERBALLY OR IN PRINT. • NOTE: A VIOLATION OF THE 1ST AMENDMENT • 20 REPUBLICAN EDITORS ARE ARRESTED FOR PUBLISHING ARTICLES CRITICAL OF THE PRESIDENT.

  37. THE NATURALIZATION ACT • THE DEMOCRATIC/REPUBLICAN PARTY IS GROWING RAPIDLY • THE FEDERALIST CONTROL CONGRESS, PASS THE NATURALIZATION ACT. • INCREASES RESIDENCE REQUIREMENT FROM 5 YEARS TO 14 YEARS.

  38. THE VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS • THE DEMOCRATIC/REPUBLICAN RESPONSE TO THE ALIEN & SEDITION ACT • JEFFERSON SECRETLY WRITES THE KENTUCKY RESOLUTION • JAMES MADISON WRITE THE VIRGINIA RESOLUTION • WHY SECRETLY?

  39. THE COMPACT THEORY IS BORN • THE CONSTITUTION IS A COMPACT(OR CONTRACT WITH THE STATES) • IF ONE PARTY TO A CONTRACT VIOLATES ITS TERM, THE CONTRACT IS BROKEN. • IF FEDERAL LAW IS CONTRARY TO THE CONSTITUTION • AND A MAJORITY OF THE STATES AGREE • STATES CAN NULLIFY THE LAW

  40. THE ELECTION OF 1800 • THE KEY ISSUE IS THE ALIEN & SEDITION ACTS • AND THE VIRGINIA & KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS • THE FEDERALISTS ARE DISCREDITED • JEFFERSON AND BURR EACH RECEIVE 73 ELECTORAL VOTES • ADAMS GET 65 VOTES • THE FEDERALIST LOSE CONTROL OF CONGRESS

  41. BURR TRIES TO STEAL THE PRESIDENCY • BURR WAS SUPPOSED TO BE VICE PRESIDENT • THE TIE SENDS THE DECISION TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. • HAMILTON HELPS JEFFERSON WIN AND MAKES AN ENEMY OF BURR • THE 12TH AMENDMENT CHANGES THE BALLOT SO THAT VOTES GO TO A PARTY TICKET.