THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION
WHY GEORGE WASHINGTON? • Leadership during the Revolution • Dignity and character • Support for republican government
ADMINISTRATION • Vice President – John Adams • Washington’s group of advisors, or cabinet: • Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton • Secretary of War – Henry Knox • U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice – John Jay • Attorney General – Edmund Randolph
PRECEDENTS • “Mr. President” • Consults with members of Congress in informal meetings. • Treaties negotiated before Senate approval • Appoints and dismisses cabinet officers • 2 term presidency
While Washington was President, construction began on the nation’s capital in Washington, D.C.
The Washington administration faced many challenges as the nation moved West. Keeping the loyalty of western settlers as well as dealing with the Native Americans, British, and Spanish posed problems.
PROBLEMS WITH NATIVE AMERICANS • Kentucky and Tennessee--broken treaties cause conflict. • Ohio country—British encourage conflict between American colonists and Native population.
The Treaty of Greenville is important because in it the Ohio Natives ceded most of present-day Ohio to the U.S.
THE WHISKEY REBELLION • Farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay the excise tax on whiskey, placed on them by Alexander Hamilton in an attempt to lower the national debt.
Farmers refused to cooperate with tax collectors, tarred and feathered collaborators, burned barns, destroyed the stills of taxpayers, and eventually killed several people.
The farmers were angry about the taxes, the failure of the government to open the Ohio country to safe settlement, and the inability of the administration to secure free access of the Mississippi River from Spain. The uprising eventually spread to Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio.
13,000 troops, commanded by Washington himself, went to Pennsylvania to put down the uprising. • SIGNIFICANCE? SHOWED ARMED RESISTANCE TO FEDERAL POLICIES WOULD NOT BE TOLERATED!
PROCLAMATION OF NEUTRALITY (1793) • Britain vs. France • To protect American commerce • Warned citizens to avoid hostile acts against either side • Sought right to trade nonmilitary goods from both sides
THE GENET AFFAIR • French Ambassador Genet came to the U.S. and began using ships (flying French flags with American crews) to seize British ships, tow them to American ports, and sell the ships and cargo.
Washington closed all ports to Genet and demanded his recall. Washington was very concerned about retaliation by the British.
He had reason to be concerned. Not only were the British impressing American sailors, they also blockaded the French West Indies.
Making the situation between the U.S. and Britain worse, Britain refused to vacate forts in the Ohio country and encouraged hostility with the natives.
JAY’S TREATY • John Jay was sent by Washington as a special envoy to Britain. • Secured British withdrawal from western forts by 1796,payment for confiscated ships, opening of trade in British West Indies.
Jay failed to receive compensation for slaves, end impressment, or gain recognition of America’s neutral rights.
TREATY OF SAN LORENZO • Opened the Mississippi River to free navigation. • Allowed Americans to use the port of New Orleans without charge. • Set boundary between U.S. and West Florida.
WASHINGTON’S ACCOMPLISHMENTS • Eased threat of war • Flourishing economy • Defeat of Ohio Indians • Diplomatic success—Jay and Pinckney • Removal of British from forts in Ohio • Free access to the Mississippi • Right of deposit at New Orleans • Hamilton’s economic plan a success—nation’s credit firm
FAREWELL ADDRESS • ADVICE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE: • NO FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS • AVOID POLITICAL PARTIES