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# Scientific Method and the Metric System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Scientific Method and the Metric System. The Scientific Method Scientific method : a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data. Observing and Collecting Data.

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### Scientific Method and the Metric System

The Scientific Method

Scientific method: a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data

• Observing: the use of the senses to obtain information

• Qualitative-descriptive

• Quantitative-numerical

• System: a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation

• Hypothesis: A testable statement

• Serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments

• Often “if-then” statements

• Logic

• Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute a hypothesis or theory

• If the data does not support the predictions, then the generalizations on which the predictions were based must be discarded or modified

• When the data from experiments confirm the hypothesis, scientists use models to explain what they observed

• Model: in science is more than a physical object: it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related.

• If a model successfully explains a phenomena, it may become part of theory

• Theory: broad generalizations that explains a body of facts or phenomena

• LINEAR!!!

• It IS….complicated and messy

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Important!

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• You are constantly measuring things (whether you realize it or not)- what units are you most familiar with?

• Height- feet/inches (5’8”)

• Temperature- F not Celsius

• Baking- 1 cup, 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon

• Drinks- 12 ounces (can of soda)

• Weight- pounds (???lbs)

• Distance- miles

• SI- a single measurement system adopted in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measurements

• Contains 7 base units and many derived

• Mass- measure of the quantity of matter

• SI unit-kilogram

• Weight- measure of the gravitational pull on matter

• Mass does not depend on such as attraction

• Which is why your WEIGHT changes if you go to the moon (1/6 to be exact)

Who drank a soda yesterday

What was it?

Did you notice the sugar content?

What was the unit of measure in?

Can you visualize how much sugar you are actually consuming in a 12oz of soda?

• SI unit- meter

• United States-miles

• Everyone else-kilometers

How tall are you in meters?!

1 foot = 0.3048 meters

If you are 5’4” so in meters you are 1.6256m

• Derived units- combinations of SI base units

• Volume: the amount of space occupied by an object

• SI unit-m3

• Non-SI unit-Liters

• 1000mL=1L

• 1000cm3=1Liter

• 1L=1000mL=1000cm3

• Always remember:

• I DENSITY!!!!

Density=Mass/Volume

• Density: the ratio of mass to volume or mass/volume

• SI derived units: mass (kg) and volume (cubic meter) kg/m3

• Characteristic physical property of a substance

• Density varies with temperature; generally density decreases with increasing temperature

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• Conversion factor: a ratio from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

How many minutes are in a day?

1440 minutes

How did you do it?

• _____ minutes per day= 60 minutes/1 hour x 24 hours/ day

• Quantity sought= quantity given x conversion factor

• Derive conversion factors if you know the relationship between the unit you HAVE and the unit you WANT

Example: Express a mass of 5.712 grams in milligrams and in kilograms

Hint:

1gram=1000mg

1kg=1000 grams

• 5.712 grams x 1000mg/1gram=5712milgrams

• 5.712grams x 1 kg/1000grams =.005712kg

• Complete the following conversions:

• 10.5g=____kg

• 1.57km=____m

• 1.2L=_____mL

• 358cm=_____m

• 3548.6mL=_____cm3

• Complete the following conversions:

• 10.5g=.0105 kg

• 1.57km= 1570 m

• 1.2L=1200mL

• 3548.6mL= 3548.6 cm3

• The density of gold is 19.3g/cm3.

• What is the volume, in cm3, of a sample of gold with mass .715kg?

• 37.05cm3

• ____cm3=.715kg x 1000g/1kg x 1cm3/19.3g