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Scientific Method and the Metric System. The Scientific Method Scientific method : a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data. Observing and Collecting Data.

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Scientific method and the metric system

Scientific Method and the Metric System

The Scientific Method

Scientific method: a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data


Observing and collecting data
Observing and Collecting Data

  • Observing: the use of the senses to obtain information

    • Qualitative-descriptive

    • Quantitative-numerical

  • System: a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation


Formulating hypotheses
Formulating Hypotheses

  • Hypothesis: A testable statement

    • Serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments

    • Often “if-then” statements

    • Logic


Testing hypotheses
Testing Hypotheses

  • Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute a hypothesis or theory

  • If the data does not support the predictions, then the generalizations on which the predictions were based must be discarded or modified


Theorizing
Theorizing

  • When the data from experiments confirm the hypothesis, scientists use models to explain what they observed

  • Model: in science is more than a physical object: it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related.

    • If a model successfully explains a phenomena, it may become part of theory

  • Theory: broad generalizations that explains a body of facts or phenomena


Scientific method is not
Scientific Method is NOT…

  • LINEAR!!!

  • It IS….complicated and messy


Versions of the scientific method
Versions of the scientific method

http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/images/ScientificMethod.jpg

http://opinionsandexpressions.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/20071210_scientificmethod.png


More versions of the scientific method
More versions of the scientific method

Important!

http://www.lewis.edu/steve/science/images/SMflowchart.jpeg

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/overview_scientific_method2.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml&usg=__D_X7ZRgf5v_lAJbIgGY5yeJg-yo=&h=348&w=362&sz=16&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=0tCD1dZBQbnH_M:&tbnh=116&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dscientific%2Bmethod%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26tbs%3Disch:1


Units of measurement
Units of Measurement

  • You are constantly measuring things (whether you realize it or not)- what units are you most familiar with?


A few ideas
A few ideas

  • Height- feet/inches (5’8”)

  • Temperature- F not Celsius

  • Baking- 1 cup, 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon

  • Drinks- 12 ounces (can of soda)

  • Weight- pounds (???lbs)

  • Distance- miles


Si measurement
SI Measurement

  • SI- a single measurement system adopted in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measurements

    • Contains 7 base units and many derived



Scientific method and the metric system
Mass

  • Mass- measure of the quantity of matter

  • SI unit-kilogram

  • Weight- measure of the gravitational pull on matter

    • Mass does not depend on such as attraction

    • Which is why your WEIGHT changes if you go to the moon (1/6 to be exact)


Mountain dew mass demo
Mountain Dew Mass Demo

Who drank a soda yesterday

What was it?

Did you notice the sugar content?

What was the unit of measure in?

Can you visualize how much sugar you are actually consuming in a 12oz of soda?


Length
Length

  • SI unit- meter

  • United States-miles

  • Everyone else-kilometers

How tall are you in meters?!

1 foot = 0.3048 meters

If you are 5’4” so in meters you are 1.6256m


Derived si units
Derived SI Units

  • Derived units- combinations of SI base units


Volume
Volume

  • Volume: the amount of space occupied by an object

  • SI unit-m3

  • Non-SI unit-Liters

  • 1000mL=1L

  • 1000cm3=1Liter

  • 1L=1000mL=1000cm3


Density
Density

  • Always remember:

    • I DENSITY!!!!

Density=Mass/Volume


Density1
Density

  • Density: the ratio of mass to volume or mass/volume

  • SI derived units: mass (kg) and volume (cubic meter) kg/m3

  • Characteristic physical property of a substance

  • Density varies with temperature; generally density decreases with increasing temperature


Si prefixes
SI prefixes

http://stpatschem11.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/600px-prefixes.png


Conversion factors
Conversion Factors

  • Conversion factor: a ratio from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

How many minutes are in a day?

1440 minutes

How did you do it?


Minutes in a day
Minutes in a day

  • _____ minutes per day= 60 minutes/1 hour x 24 hours/ day

  • Answer: 1440 minutes/day


Handy equation
Handy equation

  • Quantity sought= quantity given x conversion factor


Derive conversion factors
Derive conversion factors

  • Derive conversion factors if you know the relationship between the unit you HAVE and the unit you WANT

Example: Express a mass of 5.712 grams in milligrams and in kilograms

Hint:

1gram=1000mg

1kg=1000 grams


Answer
Answer

  • 5.712 grams x 1000mg/1gram=5712milgrams

  • 5.712grams x 1 kg/1000grams =.005712kg


Practice makes perfect
Practice makes perfect

  • Complete the following conversions:

  • 10.5g=____kg

  • 1.57km=____m

  • 1.2L=_____mL

  • 358cm=_____m

  • 3548.6mL=_____cm3


Answers
answers

  • Complete the following conversions:

  • 10.5g=.0105 kg

  • 1.57km= 1570 m

  • 1.2L=1200mL

  • 3548.6mL= 3548.6 cm3


Density problem
Density problem

  • The density of gold is 19.3g/cm3.

  • What is the volume, in cm3, of a sample of gold with mass .715kg?


Answer1
Answer

  • 37.05cm3

  • ____cm3=.715kg x 1000g/1kg x 1cm3/19.3g