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  1. Celestial Harmony, Religeous Acrimony, & Medical Redemption Michael E. Moran, M.D. Southwestern Urology Tucson, AZ Adjunct Associate Professor of Urology, Univ. of Florida Curator, American Urological Association’s William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History

  2. Introduction “Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus.” - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1808

  3. Celestial Harmony Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 (Roman Catholic canon) Revolutions 1543, Nuremberg George Joachim Rheticus 1514-1574 (Lutheran protestant) Narratio 1540, Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Roman Catholic) Siderus 1610, Venice Diologue 1632, Rome

  4. Ptolemic System Ptolemy's geocentric system as depicted by Andreas Cellarius in his lavishly illustrated Harmonia Macrocosmica

  5. Nicolaus Copernicus • Born Mikolaj Kopernik in Torun February 19, 1473 • He was born at 4:48 P.M. from his horoscope found in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich • Family moved to a house on St. Anne’s St. in Torun in 1463 • His uncle, Lucas Watzenro became his legal guardian when his father dies at age 10

  6. Frauenburg Observatory • Domenico Maria Novara was an astronomer that Copernicus stayed with during his law years in Bologna • Novara published annual astrological prognostications • In 1497, Copernicus made his first known celestial observations with Novara, a lunar eclipse of Alpha Tauri • Copernicus returned to Poland, 1503 • Returned to Italy to study medicine at Padua • Though there is little written information, he probably did study astrologic aspects of medicine (despite the puristic objections of the great Copernican scholar Edward Rosen) Earliest known portrait- early 16th century

  7. Ptolemy's Nemesis • Ptolemy’s model is shown on the left (below) • Each planet moves along a circle “epicycle”) • The model does not follow observed and mathematical observations • Copernicus was able to explain all observations with a heliocentric arrangement • He explained retrograde motion • One error will be later corrected by Galileo (Mercury and Venus always are in front of sun) • Copernicus never believed he was displacing Ptolemy

  8. Religious Acrimony Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 (Roman Catholic canon) Edict banning Protestants in Poland George Joachim Rheticus 1514-1574 (Lutheran protestant) Professor at the University of Wittenberg Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Roman Catholic) Outspoken advocate against 1616 ban Holy Office of the Roman Inquisition

  9. Georg Joachim von Lauchen (Rheticus) • Georg von Lauchen was born in 1514, Feldkirch Austria to a wealthy physician • He first studied medicine with his father, but he was tried for necromancy and was executed (beheaded) • He matriculated to the University of Wittenenberg and was a gifted student (especially mathematics) 1533-36 • He was selected by Melachthon to become the professor of mathematics • He appears to be somewhat of a free-minded individual • Melachthon always appeared to been his supporter - 1538 left to study astronomy (Peter Apian, Johannes Schoener,& Philip Imser) • He had heard rumors of the Polish astronomer with unconventional ideas and was determined to seek out Copernicus (May 1539)

  10. The First Copernican • Rheticus crossed into Poland (rather a risky thing for a Protestant to do!) • He brought 3 books as gifts to Copernicus (one was Regiomontanus) • He spent 2 years with Copernicus and persuaded him to publish his book • In addition, he allowed Rheticus to publish a first report, Narratio Prima • By 1541 he published an accurate geography of Prussia • In 1542 he published the trigonometric sections of Copernicus’ forthcoming Revolutions Narratio Prima, 1540 Philip Melanchthon(1497 - 1560)

  11. Rheticus the Physician • Rheticus was influenced by his “mentor” Copernicus in more ways than just astronomy • After returning to his teaching duties in Wittenberg, he left to publish Revolutions • But…he was restless to pursue studying medicine formally • There is good evidence that he actually met Paracelsus • He became an outspoken proponent of Paracelsian medicine (more chemical treatments and mystical) • Rheticus became the most sought after professor (Leipzig, Vienna, and Paris) • 1551-2 Studied medicine at the Univ. of Prague • By 1554 he practiced in Crackow for 20 years Lipsiae : Ex Officina Wolphgangi Gunteri, 1550

  12. Rheticus’ Religeous Demons • Rheticus was always fascinated by astrology • This is amazing, since he so readily adopted his mentor’s whole astronomy • He sojourned to Italy to study with the “worlds leading physician” Girolamo Cardano (1545) • He suffered a severe nervous breakdown following this from 1546-47 (probable over his homosexuality at war with his devout Protestantism) • He was eventually forced to flee his academic appointment at Leipzig for sodomy, sentenced to 101 years of exile • He increasingly became interested in the more occult practices of medicine • He too, was rescued from obscurity by his only student, L. Valentine Otho who helped him finish his textbook on trigonometry

  13. Medical Redemption Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 (Roman Catholic canon) Physician, much loved by patients George Joachim Rheticus 1514-1574 (Lutheran protestant) became an outspoken Paracelsian Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Roman Catholic) left medicine for mathematics always sought after for medical advice

  14. Galileo Galilei • 1564-1642 born in Florence to • Began to study medicine at the Univ. of Pisa [3 years] • Switched to mathematics • Definite interest in astronomy • By 1598 had read Copernicus and was convinced that a heliocentric theory was correct • Wrote to Kepler about Copernicus • In 1609 heard of the telescope from Holland • By 1610 had made his first telescope • Published Starry Messenger in 1610 Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Justus Sustermans.

  15. Sidereus Nuncius • Notes the jagged surface of the moon • It’s surface was like Earth’s • Noted that the Milky Way was a collection of stars • Discovered four moons around Jupiter • Dedicated the Jovian moons to Cosmo II, Grand Duke of Tuscany • 1st edition sold out in two days • Galileo became well known throughout the world

  16. The Assayer • In 1616 had been silenced on the Copernican theory officially • Cardinal Maffeo Barberini a fellow Tuscan and supporter became Pope Urban VIII • But he rebounded in 1623 by publishing the Assayer • Insisted that physics should be mathematical • “Philosophy [i.e., physics] is written in this grand book--I mean the universe--which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth.” Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore (The Asssayer, 1616) • Sarcastically attacked Jesuit comet theory of Orazio Grassi • Described the phases of Venus

  17. The Apiarium • In 1625 Galileo adapted his optics for a microscope • He gave this instrument to Cesi and Stelluti who made first observations on a bee • Galileo in turn became the 2nd, non- founding member of the Lynx • This is the first scientific society in the Western World • Popularized science, philosophical thought, and meticulous questioning of the truth • They were outspoken proponents of Galileo’s theories (until the Inquisition)

  18. Galileo's Own • Galileo was often asked by his aristocratic wealthy patrons for medical advice • On the back of one his most famous sketches of the moon is a working medical horoscope for the wife of the Duke • He was fully aware of the modern significance of Copernicus’ system and its validity • He could no longer support ancient views of planets, now altered in their celestial settings having any impact at all upon humans, their diseases, or their futures • All the premises that the ancients employed to develop medical horoscopes were flawed

  19. Conclusions • “The light of faith makes us see what we believe.” – St. Thomas Aquinas • “Nor can I ever sufficiently admire [Copernicus and his followers]; they have through sheer force of intellect done such violence to their own senses as to prefer what reason told them over what sensible experience plainly showed them…” - Galileo • “The doctrine that the earth is neither the center of the universe or immovable, but moves even with a daily rotation, is absurd, and both psychologically and theologically false, and at least an error of faith.” - Galileo

  20. Thank You & Questions? Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, is a classic expression of the conflict thesis regarding the relationship between religion and science. Galileo is shown valiantly defending himself and his Copernican views before the hostile Inquisition, which will soon declare his science to be heresy.